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PSCI 2101 Ch 2, 2012.docx

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Political Science
PSCI 2101
Andrea Chandler

Midterm - hypothesis, variable, independent, dependent Scantron sheet Hour for midterm: 15 questions The Research Assignment: What is research? - To prove/ disprove hypothesis - Find an answer to something we don’t know What is data/ evidence? - To talk about specific facts - Other ways of describing information - Aspiring to the goal of gathering info in organized way What is good research? - Peer reviewed - Gather info on both sides of argument - Try to gather as much as reasonable Interviews (not everyone will talk) historical records not available Suits the research problem - Ex: recession 2008 Could you draw conclusions by looking at the depression of 1930’s What is biased research? - Ignore other sources that can contradict you - Research that refuse info that refutes your hypothesis Also to get a particular conclusion Quality of Research? - Peer reviewed publications: process of qual control (viewers assessed work and that people who make decision they don’t get any benefits from it) - Primary sources and web sources - That’s why NOT FORM CONCLUSION (alternative hypothesis from what you originally thought) Regimes - A term which describes how a govt is formed How leadership is chosen Canada: People vote for people, stays in power How long does it stay in power How is it replaced (succession) MORE FLEXIBLE Democracy falls and replaced by authoritarian state - State: France, Canada etc (strong state, weak state) Permanent thing 3 Main regimes - Contrast between auth and dem Democracy - Dahl: competitive elections (if ppl don’t have choices of diff alternative you can’t choose), freedom of speech/ assoc, universal suffrage (right to vote) System has to at least aspire for it Authoritarianism - A broad category in comparative politics (no single defn) - Whatever is a non-democracy - Problem: so many diff kinds of authoritarianism (ruled by one person, ruled by fam, etc) - One group or one person is in power indefinitely (no time lims) - Leaders themselves determine the time they wanna stay Often do hold elections so they can appear like democracy Make it unlikely for existing leadership to be removed Limitations on freedom of speech, politically risky to challenge regime Implied that regime doesn’t have total power over citizen (there may still be some degree of soc  organization that form independently, capitalism may exist) - China? Venezuela Using democratic means in order to support the power of one particular leader Using a referendum Putting in place constitutional laws to support them (Russia expecially) Hybrid Regime - Example: Russia - Hard to place the regime in either dem or auth - Formal underpitting of democracy (separation of powers, elections) Say its democracy but same leadership stays (opposition can’t organized freely) can’t get media  time or harassed etc makes it politically risky to participate Elections held but not held regularly (cancelled, postponed) What if elections are held but the results of elections are contested (Parliament 2011, March 2012  russia elections) serious allegation on whether results were exaggerated So much protest within the last year (ppl who thought russia was auth was surprised by how much  people demonstrated: 100k people, new social stuff) So we can’t consider them to be COMPLETELY AUTH REGIME Strong demand for democracy Totalitarianism - EXTREME form of authoritarianism - Soviet union and nazi germany - Seem to be reaching the extremes of power in the same time (1930s, continuing into 1950) th Ardent and Brzezinski and freid
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