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PSCI 2101 Ch 3, 2012.docx

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Political Science
PSCI 2101
Andrea Chandler

Research in Poli sci - Identify a problem: why does something happen? - Form a hypothesis: tentative answer - Research: gather evidence to find out whether the hypothesis is true/false Example of a hypothesis Case study one: Coalition governments are more likely to be stable when they are formed by two or more moderate political parties Independent variable= cause Dependent variable= effect/outcome Ex: Moderate ideology (independent variable) Stability of coalition government (dependent variable) Case study 2: A strong state is more likely to form when all ethnic groups have equal access to good govt jobs What are the independent and dependent variables? Strong state= dependent variable Ethnic groups/ access to jobs= independent variable Development/ Modernization - The concept that societies go through particular kinds of change in the modern era. - What is modern? Soc as they become more modern, they go through particular kinds of changes (bring advantages/ disadvantages) - MODERN: M. Weber, Leonard Binder - The concept that societies go through particular kinds of change in the modern era - When people absorb the idea that they can change the world and improve their lives (they have the right to do so) Modernization Theory (Huntington and others) - Displaced from rural areas - As industry develops, education develops - Econ development brings new workers into new kinds of jobs What if modernization is too fast? (s. Huntington) All these soc changes can put a lot pressure on poli system New social needs, new expectations Modernity as weber argued was the idea that people can change their environment (EXPECT  IMPROVEMENTS IN STANDARD OF LIVING, MORE EQUALITY, JOB OPPORTUNITIES) ex: if you have access to university, expect that there will be a job but job might not be available (poli system may not have taken the right steps) If have all the pressures of modernization, can lead to issues Social unrest, can lead to military tempted to rule (something that occurred because govt was weak) if govt didn’t develop institutions to keep the state under the control of civilians= easy for mili rule ­ Wrote in 1968, lots of military coups, uprising, revolts, corruption= big problem o Attempt by Huntington to explain the world around him o Inspired a lot of criticism quickly, argued that he was putting too strong on stability,  underestimating social change and positive social policies o Sometimes most controversial= most influential o Can drive forward research just as much as outstanding breakthroughs Development and democracy as variables ­ Hypothesis A: Economic development and democracy go together ­ Correlation: Development and democracy go together o Not making a statement about which one causes the other to happen (sometimes don’t  know) ­ Hypothesis B: econ and soc development leads to democracy ­ Hypothesis C: democracy leads to soc econ development Paths to Development ­ Is there a western model of development? o 1960s and 70s, the key of development was to follow the west and that view has been  rejected o Several things coinciding: sequence of development, process by which development  occurs - Capitalism brings change in rural areas (develops more or less at the same time as strong state develops) o Developed at a time when state favour military (oriented on fighting wars) o Process of industrial development at this time (reinforcing each other) helps to produce  military goods to support the war  o Produce strong middle class and strong working class that began to make strong demands  (trade unions)  Became basis of the gradual development of liberal democracy - I
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