PSCI 1100 Lecture Notes - Peace Movement, International Security, Human Security
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Lecture No. 4 Security and World Politics Friday, February 1st, 2013
I. War and International Security
War (and peace) in Western political thought
Causes of war and level of analysis in IR
Security and was in the 20th century: World Wars, Cold War, peacekeeping
The problem of anarchy was evident in certain states. Security situation arises from problem within the state as
well as between the states. War is the father of all things; because it gives rise to the formation of states and social
order. Just War tradition was an attempt to outline a number of criteria where war was acceptable; the cause of
the war had to be just. Perpetual Peace arose with Kant in 1795.
There are three different levels that are the causes of war: human nature, the state, the international system.
Human nature is often seen as violent, and selfish; feminism points out that human nature are also caring.
Maintaining the balance of power means that you would have to go to war.
There was a peace movement in the 19th century that believed that war was in the hearts and minds of women
and men. In order to overcome the problem of war was to educate people about war and replace it with peace in
public opinion. World War I occurred due to “bad” government and the balance of power was maintained by
certain international alliances. To overcome war people would need democracy and collective security
(“idealism”). Rather than seeing security as something for itself, security depends on each other and it needed to
be shared. If one state is threatened by another state, all the other states agree to protect the threatened state. In
the 1930s, this failed when Japan attacked China. This eventually led to World War II in Europe, when there was an
attack on Poland. There was a return to national security and power politics (“realism”). The balance of power was
needed to end WWII.
NATO formed in 1949. Warsaw TO/ “Pact,” in 1955. The bipolar distribution of power contributed to the Cold War.
There was a system of two major military powers that would prevent another World War. Nuclear deterrence was
so storing that it prevented another war. MAD stands for mutually assured destruction. The Cuban Missile Crisis in
1962 almost evoked MAD. Underneath the Cold War, a hotline was established. The cooperation led to a sphere of
influence arms control where the super powers had control in their respected parts of the world. The superpowers
fought proxy wars in Third World countries. The mere absence of the superpowers and war does not mean that
people are in peace. Common security in 1982 led to a change in thinking in Soviet leadership. The United Nations
does not come to the aid of the country under attack. During the Cold War, the Security Council was paralyzed
because of the veto power. The invention of peacekeeping occurred in 1948, but formal peacekeeping happened
during the Suez Crisis in 1956.
II. From International Security to Human Security
From peacekeeping to humanitarian intervention
From state to human security
International security redux
The Cold War has left legacies in the world. Much of the Cold War drew on what portrayals left on the enemy. The
“war on terror” does to learn the lines between military and civilian life.Quantitative and qualitative expansion:
peacemaking and peace building. Humanitarian intervention beyond the UN. “The concept of security has for too
long been interpreted narrowly: as security of territory from external aggression, or as protection of national
interests in foreign policy … For most people, a feeling of insecurity arises more from worries about daily life than
from the dread of a cataclysmic world event. Will they and their families have enough to eat? Will they lose their
jobs? Will their streets and neighbourhoods be safe from crime Will they be tortured by a repressive state? Will
they become a victim of violence because of their gender? Will their religion or ethnic origin target them for
persecution?” - (UNDP Human Development Report 1994, 22).
Friday, february 1st, 2013: war and international security. War (and peace) in western political thought. Causes of war and level of analysis in ir. Security and was in the 20th century: world wars, cold war, peacekeeping. The problem of anarchy was evident in certain states. Security situation arises from problem within the state as well as between the states. War is the father of all things; because it gives rise to the formation of states and social order. Just war tradition was an attempt to outline a number of criteria where war was acceptable; the cause of the war had to be just. There are three different levels that are the causes of war: human nature, the state, the international system. Human nature is often seen as violent, and selfish; feminism points out that human nature are also caring. Maintaining the balance of power means that you would have to go to war.