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Sept 24th - John Logan

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PSYC 1001
John Logan

Psychology Sept 24th 2013 Biological Foundation of Behaviour • Phineas Gage (1823-1860) • Sept 13, 1848 • While working on a railroad line, sparks accidentally ignited and blasted a tamping rod through his left cheek and out through the frontal portion of his brain. The rod was made of iron and was 3 feet 7 inches long. The rod landed 40 feet away. The equilibrium or balance, between his intellectual faculties and animal • propensities, seems to have been destroyed. He is irreverent, indulging at times in the grossest profanity, manifesting but little deference for his fellows, impatient of restraint or advice. • Before the accident he had been the most capable and efficient foreman, one with a well balanced mind, and who was looked on as a shrewd smart business man. He was now fitful, irreverent, and grossly profane. His friends said he was “No longer Gage.” • Nervous System • A major control system of the body • Controls much voluntary and involuntary behaviour • Knowledge of system can account for many aspects of behaviour • Enormous complexity Integration of information • • Constantly adapting Electrochemical transmission • • Nervous System Pathways • Afferent Nerves: Sensory nerves that transport information to the brain • Efferent Nerves: Motor nerves that carry information from the brain (Effect -> Efferent) • Neural Networks: Clusters of neurons that are interconnected. • Central (CNS): Brain, Spinal cord • Peripheral (PNS): Somatic, Autonomic • Autonomic Nervous System: Sympathetic nervous system (arousing), parasympathetic nervous system (calming) • Neurons • Neural impulse: travels down the axon towards dendrites of the next neuron • Glial Cells: provides support and nutritional benefits in the nervous system Psychology Sept 24th 2013 • Cell Body (Soma): contains the nucleus, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for its growth. • Dendrites: receive and direct info toward the cell body; most nerve cells have numerous • Axon: carries info away from the cell body to other cells • Axon Hillock: Where the axon and cell body connect. Myelin Sheath: layer of fat cells that encases. • • How Neurons Work • Resting Potential: • -70 millivolts • Action Potential: • Movement of sodium and potassium ions into and out of the axon • All or none principle • Neurotransmitters • After an action potential occurs, Calcium migrates into the terminal button, signaling synaptic vesicles containing Neurotransmitters to be released into the synaptic gap. The neurotransmitters act like a key into the receptor site in the membrane of the receiving dendrite.These neurotransmitters open up channels that lead into the post synaptic dendrite. • Types of Neurotransmitters • Acetylcholine: excitatory - muscles, learning, and memory • GABA: Inhibitory: 1/3 synapses in brain • Norepinephrine: aka adre
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