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John Logan (12)

Oct 22nd - John Logan

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PSYC 1001
John Logan

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Psychology Oct 22nd 2013 Learning “A relatively permanent change in response potential” - Reber, A • • “relatively permanent”: inclusion of short and long term effects • Habituation • simplest kind of learning • learning not to respond to an event that has no consequences short term habituation: a temporary habituation: e.g. habituating to the • sensation of your clothing •long term habituation: e.g. habituating to traffic noise if you live beside a bust road • Associative Learning • learning two events are connected • Classical Conditioning (Pavlovian conditioning): learning an association between two stimuli (learning to go to bed at a certain time. Stimulus #1 doctor’s office + Stimulus #2 injection = child associates doctor’s office with pain) • Operant Conditioning: learning an association between a behaviour and a consequence. (positive or negative consequences) Learning Example: Drug Tolerance (Siegel, 1977) • • Tolerance: intake of some addictive drugs causes the body to require a greater dose in order to produce the same effect • tolerance incorporates two components: •a physiological opponent process to compensate for effect of drug •a psychological component that is associated with the setting in which the drug is taken; the setting prepares the body for taking the drug (psychological component of compensation) • overdose effects can occur for two reasons: •Physiological: the strength of the drug is increased •Psychological: if the setting in which the drug is normally taken in is changed, the body does not properly prepare itself to take the drug • Pavlov • Russian physiologist (early 1900’s) • Experiment: food “automatically” produces salivation when presented to a dog. •UCS: unconditioned stimulus (the food) •UCR: unconditioned response (dog salivates) Psychology Oct 22nd 2013 • Pavlov observed that dog salivated in response to several stimuli that should not produce salivation • sight of food • sight of person who brought food • Conditioned neutral stimulus • Conditioning by pairing CS bell with UCS food • After repeated pairings of CS and UCS the dog learns to associate bell with food. When learning = Acquisition • • When taking UCS away = Extinction: weakening of CR in the absence of the UCS • Spontaneous Recovery: CR re-occurs after a time delay, without further conditioning. • Optimal acquisition occurs when • UCS and CS are contiguous (close in time) • UCS and CS are contingent (predictability) • Generalization: tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original CS to elicit a response that is similar to the CR • Discrimination: process of learning to respond to certain stimuli but not to others • Operant Conditioning: Comparison with Classical • Classical Conditioning: focus on stimuli in environment • allows identification of previously neutral stimuli that will predict events • ignore stimuli that do not predict events • Operant Conditioning: focus Thorndike (1898) • • place hungry cat inside a box food (fish) outside of bos • • mechanism allows cat to open door of box if cat steps on a treadle • B.F. Skinner (1938) • coined term “operant conditioning” • Operant: any behaviour produced by an organism that c
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