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Lecture 3

PSYC 1001 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Peripheral Nervous System, Central Nervous System, Cerebrospinal Fluid

Course Code
PSYC 1001
Ayca Guler- Edwards

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Introduction to the Study of Psychology PSYC1001 – Section B
January 30, February 6, 8, & 13, 2018
2-4 12:00-4:00
Goals for today’s class…
The Nervous System
The Central Nervous System
The Brain
The Brain & Behaviour
The Peripheral Nervous System
Connecting the Brain to Behaviour
The Cells of the Nervous System
The Action Potential – how does our body communicate internally?
How do drugs affect the functioning of the brain and the nervous system – thereby
influencing behaviour?
Genetics: how much of human behaviour is biologically (genetically) pre-determined?
How do genes determine “who” we are?
Evolution: how does our evolutionary history influence our behaviour today? (functionaism,
asking why)
Nerve Cells
Neurons (nerve cells): share similar features with other cells. But it the ability communicate and
send impose from one to another cells. Cells that receive and transmit electrical signals.
The brain is a network of neurons. Communication between nervous system.
100 billion neurons with 100 trillion connections (inside the head right now).
The brain is able to engage in complex functions because the nerve cells are organized into
modules that work together
The Central Nervous System
The CNS is composed of the brain & the spinal cord
These are protected by…
The meninges (pronounced “MEN in gees”) – A three-layered membrane encasing the
brain and spinal cord. All the purpose is to protect the damage.
The Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) – the colourless fluid that surrounds the brain and the
spinal cord.
The Brain: out brain actually do a lot of works
Processes and stores information about the environment
Controls behaviour
Regulates the body’s physiological processes(such as breathing)
Different way to recognize The Brain: Based on the Function of the brain
Forebrain – Cerebral cortex,limbic system, thalamus, basal ganglia, hypothalamus

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*Higher thinking functions, is themes what you see. When you doing active, they are both
involved and there are specially separate(left or right brain). When doing any kind of task, both of the
brain is active and involved, but there is a truth for specialized.
Midbrain – several sections, including superior and inferior colliculi (colliculus),
substantianigra, mesencephalon,
Hindbrain – medulla, cerebellum, pons.
The Brain Stem – incorporates all of the midbrain and all of the hindbrain except for the
The Brain
The brain stem – one of the most primitive regions of the brain. Controls physiological
functions and automatic behaviour.
*Doing basic functions, controls of behaviours.
The cerebral hemispheres– are covered by a layer of tissue called the cerebral cortex Most
mammals have a smooth cerebral cortex, but in humans the cerebral cortex is deeply convoluted
(furrowed) – allowing for greater interconnections between parts of the cortex – which allows
humans to engage in more complex cognitive activity.
The Brain
The Cerebral Cortex (the “grey matter”) – full of bulges and grooves. The higher older,
processing, personality happened in cerebral cortex.
Gyri (or Gyrus in the singular) – the bulges
Fissures – the large grooves
Sulci (or Sulcus in the singular) – the small grooves
Involved in perception, memory, and “thoughts”
The Cerebral Cortex 32
Our sense organs take in events from the environment, translate these into nerve impulses and
send these nerve impulses to the brain.
Three areas of the Cerebral Cortex receive information from the sense organs: visual, auditory,
and somatosensory.
The Cerebral Cortex
Primary visual cortex – receives visual information. comes to occipital lobe, we have a primary
cortex, go to association area, perceptions and memories the patterns, go to plans for
movements and start to think about what you see, go to primary motor cortex.
Primary auditory cortex – receives auditory information. Auditory cortex.
Primary somatosensory cortex – receives physical information (pressure, temperature).
*Pressure, pain, the sensation from the body comes form somatosensory cortex.
Each primary sensory area sends information to the adjacent regions – called the sensory
association cortex.
Disproportionate Representation
Important parts of the body are given emphasis (extra area) in the Motor and Sensory areas of
the cortex. Each different part of the body occupy different parts of motor and sensory.

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The Cereberal Hemispheres are referred to in the plural because the Cerebrum is divided into
two halves (a right and a left hemisphere)
*Each one have different speciality. Left hem: language processing, math. Right: any creative,
visual, music.
Some brain activities and functions are not shared equally between the two hemispheres – but
instead are located primarily on one side of the brain. They are separate, but they are connected.
The two halves communicate with each other via the corpus callosum
Control of Internal Functions & Automatic Behaviour 48
Most of the activity of the body is too mundane and too complex for us to consciously control.
Many of the internal functions of the body are involved in “keeping the machine running
Homeostasis – regulation of the body’s internal processes to maintain a stable internal
Control of Internal Functions & Automatic Behaviour
The Cerebellumand Brain Stem are still considered to be a part of the CNS (back at the brain)
but these parts of the brain are in control of non-conscious processes
Cerebellum – coordinates information about “intended movements” (the movement that
you want to do) with current sensorimotor feedback to control movement
Control of Internal Functions & Automatic Behaviour
The Brain Stem contains
Medulla(regulate system, sleep, breathing) – controls heart rate, blood pressure,
breathing, balance reflexes.
Pons – serves to regulate sleep
Midbrain – involved in activating the body’s responses to threat or in preparation for
Forebrain (More developed)
Thalamus – serves as a “relay station” for information coming in to the brain from the sense
organs – engages in some “initial processing”
Hypothalamus – monitors and regulates the internal functioning of the body
Regulates biological drives, including “the four F’s”
(feeding, fighting, fleeing, and sexual behaviour)
controls the functions of the body by controlling the release of hormones from the
pituitary gland
Limbic System – A network of structures in the brain
involved in the regulation of motivated behaviours, emotion, and memory
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