Lecture 4 ****th
September 17 2013
Need to be careful because we have no control over the experiment. Example, sleep and stress level.
Researcher has no control over variables, and tries to understand how variables are related to each other.
We cannot draw causal conclusions because there are no dependent and independent variable. We are
unsure of the direction of the variable and other factors that might affect the results. A third variable
might show a fake relationship.
We can never know the causal direction of the relation.
We can never know if our variables are actually related. Their relation might be as a result of a third
Survey studies are a wellknown example for correlational studies
No one has investigated this topic before, initial step. Looking for a phenomenon. Example aggressive
behaviour in other species.
Researcher tries to understand an event, behaviour and tries to describe and categorize it.
These studies might be especially valuable in the early stages of research
The importance of descriptive studies should not be underestimated. (ex, Darwin did this study)
Observation and case studies are wellknown examples for descriptive studies.
Case study is an explanation of a subject. Brain damage person who has deficiencies. Is there a relation
between the two ?
Example video.** Graham and blind sight.
Systematic assessment and coding of behaviour
Can be used in both experimental and nonexperimental.
While using observational techniques you should decide on three things depending on your study’s
Should it be in the lab or in the natural environment?
Observation in lab environment might cause artificial behavior
Should you collect data as written descriptions or as grouping in categories of behaviour?
You can write each behaviour down or you can run a list of behaviour categories. Whichever makes
Should the observer be visible?
In general, observation should be as unnoticeable as possible
Interactive ways of collecting data
Questionnaires, surveys, and interview are all aimed to get people give information about themselves
their demographic facts (age, religious affiliation and etc), personal attitudes, beliefs, past behaviour
and so on. Faster and inexpensive and can get more people.
Questionnaires and surveys can be used to gather data from a large number of people. They are easy to
administer, costefficient and time efficient.
Interviews can be used to reach limited number of people. Interviews are facetoface dialogues and they give the researcher the opportunity to explore more about a particular subject. Cons though, biases,
interpretation of results, mistakes, quality.
Difference is the tests are developed over time and they have norms, such as IQ, so that we know what
is an average and we know how to interpret them.
Standardized measures (such as intelligence test) to assess mental abilities or personal traits.
They can also be used in measuring response performance. How participants response to a stimulus can
inform us about the processing in the brain.
These tests can be a relatively simple way to study cognition and perception.
We can measure le