O behavior: knowledge, capability, attitude (infants don"t learn to walk) Conditioning: acquired thru experience & not due to maturation, illness, injury. Learning defined: relatively durable or permanent change in. Conditioning learning by behavioural psychologists: classical conditioning. Also salivated to footsteps of assistants or rattling food dishes. Ivan pavlov (1849-1936: studies of digestion, dogs salivated when food presented, stimulus: any event or object in environment, association formed between 2 stimuli, passive reflexes. Classical conditioning explains how a neutral stimulus can acquire the capacity to elicit (or draw forth) a response originally elicited by another stimulus. Ivan pavlov, a prominent russian physiologist in the early 1900"s, who did nobel prize winning research on digestion, discovered (partly by accident) that dogs will salivate in response to the sound of a tone. In doing so, he discovered classical, sometimes called pavlovian, conditioning. In classical conditioning, the ucs is a stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response without previous conditioning pavlov"s meat powder.