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Psych lecture jan 15.odt

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Carleton University
PSYC 1002
Mara Fuentes Avila

Psych Lecture Jan/15 Human Development – Development is the sequence of age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conepetion to death – Development is a cumulative process that inclues biological and behavioural change as your grow – Development results from a dynamic interaction between growing up and environmental – Stage: a development phase when certain characteristics patterns of behaviour are exhibitied and capacities are established – The concept of development is widely used in psychology. They use it for the explanation for the different patterns of behaviour It is used to understand. Personality Development – Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development: Emphasis social interaction with other people – 1. People eveolve through 8 stages over their life span – 2. Each stage has a psychosocial conflict and the person must solve that problem – 3. Personality is shaped by how individuals deal with psychosocial conflicts – 4. Challenges in social relation stimulate personality development throughout life – Aperson's personality is made by their interactions with others – Personality development is a consquence from growing up and social demands – Conflict, demand and crisis are 3 things Erkison uses Erikson Stage Theory – Eagle identity is a main element in his theory, it is aquired through the acquisition of competence in each area of life E r i k s o n ' s p s y c h t h e o r y Stage 1 – Children learn if they can develop a sense of trust in the presence of people and in the world or they develop mistrust and say the world is untrustable – Birth- 1 years Stage 2 – Children learn to make choices in this stage, 1-3 years – Children must develop personal control and independence ex. Toilet training – Failure leads to doubt of his abilities and shame. Parents are the key social agents Stage 3 – Children develop a sense of self-initiative, 3-5 years old – 2 important events are exploration and playing Stage 4 – This stage you develop self-confidence because they spend more time not at home, 6-12 years old – Children learn to value accomplishment and achievement – Significant social agents are teachers and peers Stage 5 – Basic conflict the adolescence face is a sense of self-identity and who they are, 12-18 years old – The basic conflict is identity vs role confusion – The key social social agent are peers Stage 6 – The basic coflict is intimacy vs isolation 20-40 years – The main question is can you share intimacy – Those with a poor sense of self tend to have less committed relationships and are more likely to be isolated – Key social agents are lovers, spouses and close friends Stage 7 – Important events in this stage is work, family and parenthood 40-65 years – Sucess leads to feeling accomplishment and achievement in life Stage 8 – You look back on life, 65-death – Success leads to feeling wise and failure leads to dispair Piaget Theory – He studied children thinking and not adult thinking – Each stage builds on the previous stage and represents a more complex way of thinking 2 Processes in Piagets Theory – Adaptation: the process of adjusting to the demands of the environment. The process of adapation is done through 2 things: – Assimilation: Interpreting new experiences in terms of exisiting mental structure without changing them ex calling a ball an apple – Accommodation: changing mental structures in response to new experiences – When we use previous schemas to proccess new situation it usualy doesn't work and it is a process of assimilation – People have a perisentance to change which means you reject new information Stage 1 Piaget Theory- Sensorimotor Period: Birth - 2 years – Infants develop the ability to coordinate their sensory input with their motor actions – Infants gain symbolic thought to represent objects. – Concept of object permanence which means that objects still exist when they aren't visible Stage 2- Preoperational Period: 2-7 years – Children improve in the use of symbolic thought – Shortcomings in this period: – 1. Lack of conservation. Conservation: the awareness that physical quanitites can be the same even if they are in different shapes – 2. Centration: the tendency just to focus on 1 aspect of the problem and to neglect other important aspect – 3. Irreversibility: they don't have the mental capacity to undo something or reverse something – 4. Egocentrism: the tendency to view the world from one's viewpoint and the inability to recongize another person's viewpoint Stage 3- Concrete Operational Period: 7-11 years – Children begin to apply mental operations to concrete objects – Children must master: – 1. Reversibility: mentally undo an action – 2. Decentration: focus on more than one feature of a problem stimultaneously – 3. Decline of egocentrism and gradual mastery of conservation Stage 4- Formal Operational Period: 11 years- adulthood – Children apply their mental operations to abstract concepts – Thought process is abstract, systematic, logical and reflective – Once you achieve formal operations your thinking changes in small
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