Tues. July 9 – Chapter 9
• In order to research a variable, you must first define it
Ex. Intelligence is measured by IQ. IQ is defined by memory, problem solving, reading,
• We have to assign an OPERATIONAL DEFINITION to the variable we are researching.
• Ex. What is intelligence? How do we operationally define intelligence?
• There are a few key concepts in psychological testing:
1) STANDARDIZATION. Today, most tests are standardized. This can be bad because
since all people learn differently, the test scores may not clearly represent a person’s
intelligence. However, standardization makes finding averages (TEST NORMS) and
patterns a lot easier.
2) RELIABILITY. A test is reliable if it has consistent results. TEST RE-TEST
reliabilitythis means that if the same test is administered a week later, the participant will
achieve the same score.
3) VALIDITY. I) Content validity: Whether or not the study is measuring what it should.
II) Criterion related validity: Subjects who perform well on one test should perform well
on another. Certain scores on one test correlate to scores/performance in a related
test/field. III) Construct Validity: Using a variable that has a strong correlation to the
variable being studied to determine validity. Ex. Participants who score high on a good
IQ test should also score high on tests for problem solving and memory. If they score
high/low on both tests, the IQ test has high construct validity.
• Correlation looks at how two variables are related.
1) A correlation is NEGATIVE if one variable increases while the other decreases.
2) A correlation is POSITIVE if both variables increase/decrease.
3) STRONG correlations are closest to 1/-1.
4) WEAK correlations are closest to 0.
• Principle Types of Psychological Tests
1. Mental Ability tests: intelligence tests are general while aptitude tests are
2. Personality Scales: measure motives, interests, values, and attitudes • GALTON- intelligence runs in the family. “Hereditary genius”. One of the first to try and
test mental ability.
• SIMON/BINET- developed first standardized test (intelligence scale), measured mental
• TERMAN- created the Standford-binet intelligence test. Created the intelligence quotient
• WECHSLER- invented the first adult intelligence tests, WAIS
• The BAILEYS SCALE measures intelligence in infants
• There are some issues with the cognitive framework of intelligence tests. That is, they
are very much geared toward western culture. Although we can literally translate the
tests into other langu