Thurs. July 11 Ch.9 continued
• Nature vs. nurture debate with Rushton and Suzuki. Rushton believes IQ is related to
nature, or race, while Suzuki believes it is due to nurture, or environment.
• The SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY may be a large influence for IQ
• SPEARMAN: Certain variables will appear to be highly correlated with each other, which
suggests there is an underlying cause for being able to perform these tasks. This is
called the G-FACTOR of IQ.
• GULLFORD: says we have very many distinct intellectual abilities and intelligence is
NOT just a function of one or a few, but all.
• FLUID vs. CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE: fluid intelligence includes basic knowledge,
which crystallized intelligence includes abstract things such as problem solving.
• STERNBERG: three kinds of intelligence we possess to certain degrees.
1. Practical Intelligence: Street smarts. Knows how to survive in their environment
2. Creative Intelligence: Artistic skills, musicians, painters
3. Analytical Intelligence: Reasoning and logic. Problem solving.
• GARDNER: eight types of intelligence (recently added a 9 )th
1. Logical-mathematical: good with logical/numerical patterns, ability to handle
long chains of reasoning.
2. Linguistic: sensitive to sounds, rhythms, and the meaning of words.
Understanding of the functions of language.
3. Musical: ability to produce/appreciate rhythm and pitch. Appreciate the forms of
4. Spatial: Good visual/special perception, able to accurately perform
transformations on one’s initial perceptions.
5. Bodily-kinesthetic: Ability to control one’s body movement and handle objects
6. Interpersonal: Capability to respond to the desires, moods, and temperaments
7. Intrapersonal: Have detailed self-knowledge, be able to access one’s feelings
easily. 8. Naturalist: Ability to recognize and categorize objects and processes in nature.
• GOLEMAN: Emotional intelligence. Emotionally intelligent people understand
relationships and other people well. They know how to interact well with others. They
also can put themselves in the shoes of others, as well as understand their own
• BIOLOGICAL INDEXES OF INTELLIGENCE: Do those with a higher IQ differ
biologically? It has been hypothesised that those with a higher IQ have a larger brain,
faster reaction time, and faster processing.
• CREATIVITY: the ability to create novel multiple useful solutions to a problem
• DIVERGENT vs. CONVERGENT thinking: non-creative people use convergent thinking
(one answer). Creative thinkers use divergent thinking (multiple answers). This is the
problem with standardized testing!
• Creativity tests are an example of subjective testing.
• There is some research that suggests creativity is correlated with independence and
non-conformity. They are also often confident introverts who are very impulsive and
• The does not seem to be a link between intelligence and creativity
• There is some evidence for a correlation between creativity and certain mental illnesses.