Wed. July 17 – Ch.11 Continued
• EASY vs. DIFFICULY BABIES- DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERMENT
1. THOMAS, CHESS, and BIRCH: Suggested there are three different
temperament styles. These styles are stable over time.
I. Easy (40%)
II. Slow to warm up (15%)
III. Difficult (10%)
IV. Mixed (35%)
2. KAGAN, SNIDMAN: Inhibited vs. Uninhibited temperament. These
temperaments are stable over time and genetically based.
I. Inhibited (15-20%)
II. Uninhibited (25-30%)
• A LONGITUDINAL design is used to track subjects over a period of time. These types of
studies are often used to study temperament in babies.
• A CROSS SECTIONAL design looks at different ages with different sets of children for
each age range. This allows data about different age groups to be collected right away
without having to wait for the children to grow up.
• COHORT EFFECT: unique experience a group may have had that another has not that
affects their response/score in a study.
• EARLY EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT- ATTACHMENT
1. SEPERATION ANXIETY: Develops around 6-7 months of age. The child is
upset by being separated from the primary caregiver. This is important
because it shows the child has developed an attachment.
2. AINSWORTH studied attachment in infants. She found there are 3 main
I. Secure- When mother leaves, child is upset. When she returns, the
child is easily calmed by her.
II. Anxious-ambivalent- When mother leaves, child is angry. When she
returns, the child often doesn’t care or reacts to her violently (lashes
out). III. Avoidant- Does not care if mother leaves, does not care if she comes
3. DEVELOPING SECURE ATTACHMENT:
I. It is suggested we are born with the ability to attach. Things such as
the ability to smile are necessary for us to achieve a positive response
from others. Attachment begins through bonding at birth, and is
influenced by cultural factors.
II. DAYCARE STUDIES: Initially, it was thought daycare was bad for
attachment/development. However, it was later found that low quality
daycare is bad, while high quality daycare is actually better for
development in some aspects.
• HARLOW surrogate mother study. Places baby monkeys with surrogate mothers. Babies
were offered a cold metal mother who provided food, and a warm cuddly mother that did
not provide food. It was observed which mother was preferred by babies. It was found
that babies spent most of their time with the warm cuddly mother rather than the cold
one with food.
• THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT- PERSONALITY
1. STAGE THEORIES: These theories have three components.
I. We progress through stages in order
II. Progress through stages relates to age
III. Major discontinuities in development
2. ERIK ERIKSON: Eight stages spanning the lifespan; psychological crisis
determining balance and determining opposing polarities in personality.
I. TRUST vs. MISTRUST: first year of life- Is my world predictable and
II. AUTONOMY vs. SHAME&DOUBT: 2-3 years- Can I