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Chapter 11- Temperment of babies, Longitudinal vs. cross-sectional study, Attachment, Theories of development

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PSYC 1002
Kim O�neil

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th Wed. July 17  – Ch.11 Continued • EASY vs. DIFFICULY BABIES- DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERMENT 1. THOMAS, CHESS, and BIRCH: Suggested there are three different temperament styles. These styles are stable over time. I. Easy (40%) II. Slow to warm up (15%) III. Difficult (10%) IV. Mixed (35%) 2. KAGAN, SNIDMAN: Inhibited vs. Uninhibited temperament. These temperaments are stable over time and genetically based. I. Inhibited (15-20%) II. Uninhibited (25-30%) • A LONGITUDINAL design is used to track subjects over a period of time. These types of studies are often used to study temperament in babies. • A CROSS SECTIONAL design looks at different ages with different sets of children for each age range. This allows data about different age groups to be collected right away without having to wait for the children to grow up. • COHORT EFFECT: unique experience a group may have had that another has not that affects their response/score in a study. • EARLY EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT- ATTACHMENT 1. SEPERATION ANXIETY: Develops around 6-7 months of age. The child is upset by being separated from the primary caregiver. This is important because it shows the child has developed an attachment. 2. AINSWORTH studied attachment in infants. She found there are 3 main types. I. Secure- When mother leaves, child is upset. When she returns, the child is easily calmed by her. II. Anxious-ambivalent- When mother leaves, child is angry. When she returns, the child often doesn’t care or reacts to her violently (lashes out). III. Avoidant- Does not care if mother leaves, does not care if she comes back. 3. DEVELOPING SECURE ATTACHMENT: I. It is suggested we are born with the ability to attach. Things such as the ability to smile are necessary for us to achieve a positive response from others. Attachment begins through bonding at birth, and is influenced by cultural factors. II. DAYCARE STUDIES: Initially, it was thought daycare was bad for attachment/development. However, it was later found that low quality daycare is bad, while high quality daycare is actually better for development in some aspects. • HARLOW surrogate mother study. Places baby monkeys with surrogate mothers. Babies were offered a cold metal mother who provided food, and a warm cuddly mother that did not provide food. It was observed which mother was preferred by babies. It was found that babies spent most of their time with the warm cuddly mother rather than the cold one with food. • THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT- PERSONALITY 1. STAGE THEORIES: These theories have three components. I. We progress through stages in order II. Progress through stages relates to age III. Major discontinuities in development 2. ERIK ERIKSON: Eight stages spanning the lifespan; psychological crisis determining balance and determining opposing polarities in personality. I. TRUST vs. MISTRUST: first year of life- Is my world predictable and supportive? II. AUTONOMY vs. SHAME&DOUBT: 2-3 years- Can I
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