Mon, July 29 –Chapter 13 continued
• Responding to stress Psychologically
1. People under stress generally do not perform as well on tasks as those who are not
2. Burnout: during extreme prolonged stress, a point of exhaustion.
3. Post-traumatic Stress: the result of a trauma. Reliving the trauma usually through
nightmares. Elevated levels of anger, anxiety, hostility. Trouble sleeping, problems
interacting with others. Although this is common with military veterans, it is also seen
in abuses children and rape victims.
4. Psychological Disorders: stress seems to be an underlying link to disorders. It has
been linked to depression, anxiety, and substance abuse as well as sleep disorders.
5. Positive effects: You can develop resilience; you get use to coping and develop
coping skills. It is suspected personality type can determine one’s ability to develop
resilience as well as strong social bonds.
• Physical Effects of Stress
1. Psychosomatic Disease: NOT imagined disease. Real physical symptoms, but the
cause is purely psychological.
2. Heart disease: Higher rates of heart disease in people with higher stress levels.
Type A personality type has been linked to heart disease. These people are
competitive, impatient, and tend to be easily angered.
3. Stress and Immune Function: Reduced immune activity. More likely to contract a
cold, etc. When your immune system is down, it can lead to chronic inflammation.
For example, when arthritic/asthmatic people are stressed, they can find their
symptoms will worsen.
• Factors Moderating the Impact of Stress
1. Social Support: increased immune function has been linked to social support.
Isolation can cause lowered immune function.
2. Optimism: A person who views things in a more positive light is more adaptive.
They are able to see positives in a negative situation. They are also more likely to
address their problems and find a solution. 3. Conscientiousness: Responsible, on task, focused. They are more likely to pay
attention to small things like nutrition and exercise. They are also very organized and
disciplined, so they are less likely to become stressed in the first place.
4. Autonomic Reactivity: Making use of relaxation; using relaxation as a coping
technique. This can lower risk for heart disease.
• Health-Impairing Behaviors: These behaviors are more likely during times of stress.
1. Smoking: Generally declining, however university age students have a higher
prevalence of smoking.
2. Poor Nutrition
3. Lack of exercise
4. Alcohol/Drug use (this is often linked with risky sexual behavior)
5. Risky Sexual Behavior
6. AIDS: Stress does not cause AIDS, but stress increases unhealthy choices with may
lead to contraction. Although AIDS is generally declining, it is actually increasing in
• Reactions to Illness
1. Seeking treatment: Many people ignore the physical symptoms; even more will
ignore mental symptoms.
2. Communication with Health Care Providers: Communication problems with health
care providers. This is more prevalent in multicultural societies due to communication
3. Following Medical Advice: Non-compliance. This is more common with young
• Stress Management
1. Ellis’s View: We should be able to talk ourselves out of negative feelings. 2. Humor: seen as one of the more effective positive ways to manage stress. This is
because laughter releases endorphin, as well as facial feedback. It is also often
observed that people who use humor don’t take themselves too seriously.
3. Release: Writing, talking, social interaction, exercise.
4. Anger Management: Focusing your anger on something positive.
5. Relaxation: When we relax (meditation, yoga), we see a decline in heart rate and
respiration. This has benefits to coping with stress.
Chapter 14Psychological Disorders
• Medical model of Abnormal Behavior
1. Back in the day, those with ment