Wed. July 31 Chapter 14 cont.
• Subjects are presented with sentences that can be viewed as threatening or non-
threatening. It was found that the anxious subjects were more likely to find neutral or
non-threatening info as threatening.
• Dissociative Disorders
1. Dissociative amnesia: when following a trauma, you have memory but forget
personal information. You can remember where you work but you forget your name,
2. Dissociative fugue: forget personal information as well as other info that is
personally relevant (family, where you work, friends). You can still remember how to
do routine things (driving, writing).
3. Dissociative identity disorder: Multiple personalities. Personalities are unaware of
each other. In almost every case is causes buy abusive trauma usually in childhood.
Some psychologists believe this disorder does not exist, and that it is actually just a
severe case of role playing.
• Mood Disorders 1. Major Depressive Disorder: Extreme sadness, constant feeling, interferes with life.
Higher levels of anxiety, more irritable. Loss of pleasure. Around 10% of Canadians
will suffer at least one episode of this.
2. Bipolar disorder: Go through very depressed states but also go through phases of
euphoria, feel like they can conquer the world (mania).
3. Seasonal Affective Disorder: A recent disorder where people have the symptoms
of depression but the cycle will follow the seasons. It may be hormonal or sunlight
4. Mood Disorders/ Suicide: 90% of people who commit suicide suffer from a
psychological disorder. 60% of those people suffer from mood disorders. Certain
populations have much higher rates of suicide (cultural). Causes of mood disorders
can be as follows:
Twin studies of mood disorders show a high concordance rate. The rate is much
higher in identical twins than fraternal showing a strong genetic relevance.
• Etiology of Mood Disorders
1. Genetic Vulnerability: There is a strong genetic link to mood disorders.
2. Neurochemical Factors: There are two neurotransmitters whose imbalance is
linked to depression, Norepinephrine and serotonin.
3. Cognitive Factors: Learned helplessness, you stop trying. People who think
negatively are also more likely to become depressed. 4. Interpersonal Roots: Inadequate social skills, therefore there will not be a lot of
reinforcers in their life. Therefore, they will be more vulnerable to depression.
5. Sports Concussions: There is a link between these and depression. At this time not
a lot of details are known.
6. Precipitating Stress: Environmental stressors can put you at risk for depression.
1. General Symptoms
I. Delusions and irrational thought: unrealistic beliefs, disconnect in thought
process. Talking in a way that is incoherent and makes no sense
II. Deterioration of adaptive behavior: Poor hygiene, may not engage in proper
III. Hallucinations: Sensory perceptions when no stimulus us present
IV. Disturbed emotions: Laughing when it is inappropriate, some cases of
elevated aggression. Inappropriate emotions or no emotion at all.
2. Prognostic Factors: This depends on the severity and type of it.
3. There are four subtypes of schizophrenia:
I. Paranoid: Delusions of persecution. “Someone’s out to get me”, very
suspicious. Very irrational speech.
II. Catatonic: Lack of response. No emotion, sits very still.
III. Disorganized: Very incoherent, social withdrawal.
IV. Undifferentiated: A mix of all the categories.
4. New Model for Classification
I. Positive symptoms: An addition of something that wasn’t t