12 Ch. 16 Social Behavior
• Personal perception: forming impressions of others
1. Effects of physical appearance: if someone is attractive, they have more
advantages. We tend to rate attractive people more positively in general. 2. Cognitive schemas: we like to categorize information. This can contribute to
I. Zana study: To see if people behave differently because of stereotypes. First,
they had white males interview either a white or black job applicant. The
applicant is part of the experiment. They found that when the applicant was
black the interviewers tended to do different things including sitting farther
away, speaking more quickly, and make more mistakes when speaking
(called non-immediate style). This suggests we change our behavior when
dealing with stereotypes.
In the second part, they wanted to see how people would react when people
behaved toward them in the same style (sitting far away, etc.).They wanted to
see if being interviewed in a certain way effected performance. In this study a
white experimenter interviewed white students using the either immediate or
non-immediate style. In this half, race is out of the equation. Those
interviewed in a non-immediate style did not do as well. This is an example of
the self-fulfilling prophecy.
II. Priming Study: Two groups of college students were given a task involving
words. One group was given words associated with old age, and the second
was given neutral words. They then timed how long it took people to walk to
the elevator after the study. Those who were primed with old age took much
longer to walk to the elevator than those who were not.
4. Prejudice and discrimination: Prejudice is the attitude and discrimination is the
behavior or the act. It is possible to have one without the other.
5. Subjectivity in person perception: We form attitudes and impressions and we
want to believe they are true. Therefore, we overestimate the confirming evidence.
6. Evolutionary perspectives: We are wired to see anything different from us as
threatening. This is likely why stereotypes exist, so we can quickly classify people as
• Attribution Processes: Explaining Behavior
I. Internal vs. External: Internal attributions about a person are about their
personality or what they personally are like. External attributions are about
something outside the person like the environment. II. Weiner’s Covariation model: There are different possible causes for people’s
success and failure. Causes can be internal or external, and temporary
(unstable) or permanent (stable). These can be used to describe our own
actions as well as the actions of others.
2. Biases in Attributions
I. Fundamental attribution error: We will overestimate internal behavior for
others. If someone doesn’t do well, it’s because they were stupid. Gilbert
suggests that we do this, but only because it is easier to ignore situational
II. Defensive attribution: We blame victims for what happened to them.
III. Self-serving bias: This is where we attribute our own success to something
internal and our own failure to something external.
3. Cultural Influences: individualistic are more about independence. Collectivistic
cultures are more group oriented, and interestingly less prone to the fundamental
• Close relationships: Liking and Loving
1. Key factors in attraction
I. Physical attractiveness II. Matching hypothesis: we tend to be attracted to someone who is similar to us
in terms of attractiveness.
IV. Reciprocity: We like people who are nice to us/ do things for us because we
feel a need to reciprocate.
V. Romantic Ideals: We are attracted to people with similar romantic ideals.
VI. Proximity: we tend to end up developing relationships with people who we are
physically closer to.
2. Perspectives on Love
I. Hatfield & Berscheid: Passionate vs. Companionate Love. Passionate love is
very strong, and also has a sexual component. Companionate love has trust,
II. Sternberg: Intimacy and commitment. Intimacy is the sharing of personal