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Carleton University
PSYC 1002
Kim O' Neil

PSYC 1002 Thursday January 16th, 2014 Housekeeping The synopsis assignment is up on CULearn! This is an optional assignment that can earn you • up to 4% extra in the class. This can be used instead of the SONAstudy or in combination with. Remember you cannot hand in synopsis #2 without doing #1! If you are only doing 1, this • means you must do article #1. The Evolution of Intelligence Testing Sir Francis Galton (1869) • Hereditary Genius • Believed that intelligence is hereditary/passed on through families. He measured different sensory abilities (hearing, seeing etc.) • Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon (1905) Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale • First formalized, standardized test • Only used for children, not adults! • • Used to identify children who are struggling in school. • They called the result “mental age”. Your result is your mental age. Lewis Terman (1916) • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = MA(mental age)/CA(chronological age) x 100 • David Wechsler (1955) WechslerAdult Intelligence Scale • This was the first scale for adults. • Normal distribution: Plotting their score on the normal distribution. • An example of this is when teachers bell curve their marks. This means they change it so that • it fits the normal distribution. 68% of people will fall into the “average” group (red). One standard deviation above and • below the mean. This was one of the contributions of Wechsler. • • Wechsler’s adult IQ tests and children IQ tests are not always fair. We cannot assume that one person will know the same information as another, especially because of cultural differences. Validity of IQ Tests Are IQ tests valid? • • Sternberg’s (1981) categories: • Verbal: Proficient on reading and writing. • Practical: Solving problems effectively. Social: Communicating and being in tune with emotions. • Which do IQ tests measure? • Stanovich (2009) criticisms. • He found that people can have very high IQs and still make decisions that make no sense! • • IQ tests do not determine if someone can make effective decisions. • So are IQ tests valid? According to Stanovich, they are not. Reliability and Validity of IQ Tests • Reliability: If you test someone twice, you assume they will get similar results. • Exceptionally reliable – correlations into the .90s • Qualified validity – valid indicators of academic/verbal intelligence, not intelligence in a truly general sense. • Correlations: • .40s-.50s with school success .60s-.80s with number of years in school • Predictive of occupational attainment, debate about predictiveness of performance. • If you score high on your IQ test, it is most likely you will spend more time in school. • • People with higher IQ scores get better jobs, but they are not strong predictors of how you will do in the job. Employers will make assumptions based on your IQ test, without knowing how well you • actually do the job. Interpersonal skills are the #1 quality employers look for. • Stability and Culture Stability no seen in infancy/preschool ages. • There are scales that attempt to predict IQ but they do not seem to be very effective. • Scores are stable around ages 7+. • Tests are age-specific.After age 7, results are well-correlated. • Changes can occur (ex. Headstart Programs). • • Started in the 1970s, and they found the programs worked. • This suggests that the environment really does change the IQ. Eventually however there would be a plateau and the IQ would stop increasing. • There is a limit to how much you can push learning. • Used in Western Cultures and not in non-Western Cultures. • Cross-cultural issues. • The issue is that they appeared to be for middle-class caucasian children and adults. • Extremes of Intelligence: Mental Retardation Diagnosis based on IQ and adaptive testing. • IQ 2 or more standard deviations below the mean (70 or lower). • • Adaptive skill deficits • Orientation before age 18. 4 Levels: mild (51-70), moderate (36-50), severe (20-35), profound (below 20). • Mild most common by far (85% of those with mental retardation are classified as mild). • Causes: environmental vs. biological • • Sometimes retardation can be caused by genetics/things going wrong before birth. Other times it can be from neglect and poor treatment at a young age. Children need environmental stimulation to grow. • The environment is very important. Mental retardation can form as result of neglect. • The prevalence and severity of mental retardation. The overall prevalence of mental retardation is roughly 1 to 3% of the general population. The vast majority (85%) of the retarded population is mildly retarded. Only about 15% of the retarded population falls into the subcategories of moderate, severe, or profound retardation. Why is low socioeconomic status related to cognitive development? Lower social economic status can be linked to low cognitive development. • Many families who do not have a lot of money also do not have a lot of time to spend with • children. Prenatal vitamins can be expensive but also crucial to development. • Extremes of Intelligence: Giftedness Identification issues – ideals vs. practice • IQ 2 standard deviations above mean standard. • Creativity, leadership, special talent? • What if it doesn’t measure what you are gifted in? • Stereotypes – weak, socially inept, emotionally troubled • • Lewis Terman (1925) – largely contradicted stereotypes He broke children up into groups who were in no daycare, moderate daycare, and good • daycare. Ellen Winner (1997) – moderately vs. profoundly gifted • She broke gifted people into two groups: moderate and profound • • Those who were profoundly gifted suffered from social problems and certain mental disorders (depression/bi-polar). • Giftedness and high achieving – beyond just an IQ level • Renzulli (2002) – intersection of three factors • High intelligence (in that area) • High motivation Creativity • Simonton (2001) – drudge theory and inborn talent • You also need drudge theory (hard work!) • If you have inborn talent and motivation.hard work, you will be successful. • “Hidden gifted” • Children who are gifted but don’t do well in school. • • Bored, have a disability, may not be tested in the area they are gifted in. Twin Studies Identical twins (monozigotic): One sperm and one egg, the cell splits into two. • They are 100% identical. • • Fraternal twins (dizigotic): Two sperm and two eggs. • They are 50% identical. • What does this mean in terms of intelligence? Studies of IQ similarity. The graph shows the mean correlations of IQ scores for people of various types of • relationships, as obtained in studies of IQ similarity. • Higher correlations indicate greater similarity. The results show that greater genetic similarity is associated with greater similarity in IQ, suggesting that intelligence is partly inherited (compare, for example, the correlations for identical and fraternal twins). However, the results also show that living together is associated with greater IQ similarity, • suggesting that intelligence is partly governed by environment (compare, for example, the scores of siblings reared together and reared apart). • If the environment of the twins are the same or different, this can also have an impact on their similarity. Selective Breeding Studies Some scientists took rats that they found “smart” and had them breed with other “smart” rats. • They found that the rats produced were also “smart,” then concluded that they could do the same with humans. This is an issue however because we are not the same as rats, and this process includes • extinction of certain groups of people. This is not ethical. The other problem is that we cannot test rats in the same ways we can test humans. Rats can • run through a maze quickly but that has no purpose for us as humans. Intelligence: Heredity or Environment • Heredity Family and twin studies. • Heritability estimates. • • Environment Adoption studies • •Cumulative deprivation hypothesis. The Flynn effect. • Interaction • •The concept of reaction range. Tom and Jack (above) were
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