Thursday January 23rd, 2014
Human Sexual Response
Rapid rise in the physiological (physical) responses.
Continuing with a physiological response but not as quickly. It reaches a plateau and this is when
Peak sexual arousal.
Males are more likely to achieve
orgasm, but women are able to
achieve orgasm more than once in
one sexual encounter.
Physiological routine goes back to
normal and this phase lasts longer for
men than women. Sexual Motivation and Behaviour: Determining Desire
Parental Investment Theory (Trivers, 1972)
Men do not have much investment in offspring. Duties fall on the female.
Drive and Cognition
Erotic Materials: The Porn Debate
• Evolutionary Factors
• Featured Study (pg. 458)
• Parental investment theory and mating preferences: Parental investment theory suggests that basic
differences between males and females in parental investment have great adaptive significance and
lead to gender differences in mating propensities and preferences, as outlined here.
• For females, reproduction is a lot of time, energy, and risk invested. For men there is not much
invested. Men therefore will be more interested in uncommitted sex and women will be less interested.
• Men often think about sex every day, whereas women are thinking about sex a few times a week or
month. Women think about it less often.
• Clarke Study — On page 456 you can see this study.
• Clarke had women (strangers) go up to men and ask if they wanted to have sex out of nowhere. 75%
• Clarke did the same thing to women, but 0% said yes.
• Feature Study — Are women pre-wired to pick up on hints that a man is a good mate (pg. 458).
• Women were asked to determine male masculinity and interested in children from looking at a
photograph of a man. • The study suggests that women can determine these things from a glance just based on looks.
Obviously there are some controversies with this study.
Cross Cultural Research
In all cultures, prospects of money are important to females.
• Physical attractiveness is also important to both males and females.
Aggressive porn has not been found to increase the amount of abuse in sexual situations.
• It does however change the cognition — those who engage in this kind of viewing will be less
sympathetic to aggressive situations (ie. less sympathetic to a rape victim).
How common is homosexuality?
Homosexuality and heterosexuality as endpoints on a continuum: Sex researchers view heterosexuality
and homosexuality as falling on a continuum rather than make an all-or-none distinction.
Kinsey and his associates (1948, 1953) created this seven-point scale (from 0 to 6) to describe people’s
They used the term ambisexual to describe those who fall in the middle of the scale, but such people
are commonly called bisexual today.
How common is homosexuality? The answer to this question is both complex and controversial.
Michaels (1996) brought together data from two large-scale surveys to arrive at the estimates shown
here. • If you look at how many
people have actually had a
same-sex partner in the last
five years, the figures are
relatively low, but if you
count those who have had
a same-sex partner since
puberty the figures more
• Still another approach is
to ask people whether they
are attracted to others of
the same sex (regardless of
their actual behaviour).
This approach suggests
that about 8% of the
population could be
characterized as homosexual.
The Mystery of Sexual Orientation
Heterosexual — Bisexual — Homosexual
Theories explaining homosexuality.
• This shows us that sexual
orientation can be tied to
biology, as we see identical
twins have much relation
on this matter.
There is a protective
barrier between the mothers
body and the fetus. What
we didn’t know before is
that female hormones can
enter past this barrier,
which changes the fetus
development. • Males often trace their sexual orientation back to their childhood, but for females it can of dent be a
product of the environment. With females, sexual orientation changes more often and it is likely that
both attraction to males and females will happen during their life.
Affiliation andAchievement Motivation
Affiliation Motivation = need for social bonds
Devote more time to interpersonal activities.
• Worry more about acceptance.
Achievement Motivation = need to excel
• Work harder and more persistently
• Delay gratification
• Pursue competitive careers
Situational influences on achievement motives
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) — On page 465.
These tests are very subjective and oftentimes critiqued.
We are cognitive beings when we are making decisions.
• According to JohnAtkinson, a person’s pursuit of achievement in a particular situation depends on
• Some of these factors, such as need for achievement or fear of failure, are relatively stable motives that
are part of the person’s personality.
• Many other factors, such as the li