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PSYC 1002
Kim O' Neil

PSYC 1002 Thursday January 23rd, 2014 Human Sexual Response Excitement Phase • Rapid rise in the physiological (physical) responses. • Plateau Phase • Continuing with a physiological response but not as quickly. It reaches a plateau and this is when • lubrication occurs. Orgasm Phase • Peak sexual arousal. • Males are more likely to achieve • orgasm, but women are able to achieve orgasm more than once in one sexual encounter. Resolution Phase • Physiological routine goes back to • normal and this phase lasts longer for men than women. Sexual Motivation and Behaviour: Determining Desire Parental Investment Theory (Trivers, 1972) • Men do not have much investment in offspring. Duties fall on the female. • Gender Differences • Drive and Cognition • Mate Preferences • Erotic Materials: The Porn Debate • • Evolutionary Factors • Featured Study (pg. 458) • Parental investment theory and mating preferences: Parental investment theory suggests that basic differences between males and females in parental investment have great adaptive significance and lead to gender differences in mating propensities and preferences, as outlined here. • For females, reproduction is a lot of time, energy, and risk invested. For men there is not much invested. Men therefore will be more interested in uncommitted sex and women will be less interested. • Men often think about sex every day, whereas women are thinking about sex a few times a week or month. Women think about it less often. • Clarke Study — On page 456 you can see this study. • Clarke had women (strangers) go up to men and ask if they wanted to have sex out of nowhere. 75% said yes. • Clarke did the same thing to women, but 0% said yes. • Feature Study — Are women pre-wired to pick up on hints that a man is a good mate (pg. 458). • Women were asked to determine male masculinity and interested in children from looking at a photograph of a man. • The study suggests that women can determine these things from a glance just based on looks. Obviously there are some controversies with this study. Cross Cultural Research In all cultures, prospects of money are important to females. • • Physical attractiveness is also important to both males and females. Pornography Study Aggressive porn has not been found to increase the amount of abuse in sexual situations. • • It does however change the cognition — those who engage in this kind of viewing will be less sympathetic to aggressive situations (ie. less sympathetic to a rape victim). How common is homosexuality? Homosexuality and heterosexuality as endpoints on a continuum: Sex researchers view heterosexuality • and homosexuality as falling on a continuum rather than make an all-or-none distinction. Kinsey and his associates (1948, 1953) created this seven-point scale (from 0 to 6) to describe people’s • sexual orientation. They used the term ambisexual to describe those who fall in the middle of the scale, but such people • are commonly called bisexual today. How common is homosexuality? The answer to this question is both complex and controversial. • Michaels (1996) brought together data from two large-scale surveys to arrive at the estimates shown • here. • If you look at how many people have actually had a same-sex partner in the last five years, the figures are relatively low, but if you count those who have had a same-sex partner since puberty the figures more than double. • Still another approach is to ask people whether they are attracted to others of the same sex (regardless of their actual behaviour). This approach suggests that about 8% of the population could be characterized as homosexual. The Mystery of Sexual Orientation Heterosexual — Bisexual — Homosexual • AContinuum • Theories explaining homosexuality. • • Environmental • Biological • Interactionist • This shows us that sexual orientation can be tied to biology, as we see identical twins have much relation on this matter. There is a protective • barrier between the mothers body and the fetus. What we didn’t know before is that female hormones can enter past this barrier, which changes the fetus development. • Males often trace their sexual orientation back to their childhood, but for females it can of dent be a product of the environment. With females, sexual orientation changes more often and it is likely that both attraction to males and females will happen during their life. Affiliation andAchievement Motivation Affiliation Motivation = need for social bonds • Devote more time to interpersonal activities. • • Worry more about acceptance. Achievement Motivation = need to excel • • Work harder and more persistently • Delay gratification • Pursue competitive careers Situational influences on achievement motives • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) — On page 465. • These tests are very subjective and oftentimes critiqued. • We are cognitive beings when we are making decisions. • • According to JohnAtkinson, a person’s pursuit of achievement in a particular situation depends on several factors. • Some of these factors, such as need for achievement or fear of failure, are relatively stable motives that are part of the person’s personality. • Many other factors, such as the li
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