Thursday January 30th, 2014
• Our exam is TWO WEEKS from today. Next week will be our last class for the midterm
content. The exam will be 2 hours long.
• The midterm exam covers chapters 9, 10, 11 and 12.
Early Emotional Development:Attachment
• Separation anxiety (only happens after the first 7 months)
• MaryAinsworth (1979) — Separation anxiety is the main subject of her work.
• The strange situation and patterns of attachment.
Distressed when mom leaves, and happy when mom returns.
Distressed when mom leaves, unsure and still a bit upset when she returns.
Doesn’t care when mom leaves, doesn’t care when mom comes back.
Disorganized/Disoriented (this is very ambiguous and related to abusive environments)
Child is very dazed and confused when mother is present.
Developing secure attachment
Bonding at birth, Daycare, Cultural factors
• Attachment is ESSENTIAL in the first 24 months after birth.
• Evolutionary perspectives on attachment
Reactive attachment disorder: Inability to attach to someone/anyone. We see this a lot with
criminals because they tend to care less about feelings and people.
Seeing how high-quality and low-quality daycare affects upbringing (cognitive and
In low-quality care the children were at an advantage. In low-quality daycare, the children
were at a disadvantage.
Bowlby Theory Infants are pre-wired with the ability to attach. He says that we are born with the ability to
make eye contact and smile and do other things that will endear them to a caregiver, to draw
them in and make an attachment.
Attachment is about survival and feeding. He says babies will bond with a caretaker because
they want to be fed and that person will feed them.
This experiment shows that it doesn't matter who or what serves at the “mother figure,” all that
matters is warmth, comfort and food.
Stage Theories of Development: Personality
• Stage theories, three components.
• Progress through stages in order.
Progress through stages related to age.
Erik Erikson (1963)
Eight stages spanning the lifespan
Psychosocial crisis determining balance between opposing polarities in personality.
Freud was the first to discover that your early childhood environment has a huge impact on
later life. Erikson caught onto this and followed up. Fig 11.9 – Erikson’s stage theory. Erikson’s theory of personality development posits that people
evolve through eight stages over the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychosocial crisis that
involves confronting a fundamental question, such as “Who am I and where am I going?” The
stages are described in terms of alternative traits that are potential outcomes from the crises.
Development is enhanced when a crisis is resolved in favor of the healthier alternative (which is
listed first for each stage).
Stage Theories: Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget (1920s-1980s)
4 stages and major milestones
• Object permanence: Knowing something exists even when it’s not in front of you. Piaget
says this is not apparent in children under 7 months of age.
He says that separation anxiety occurs when objet permanence occurs because this is
when the child will know that the caretaker is gone but can come back.
Centration, Egocentrism, this is also around the time that speaking begins.
• Children at this age do not understand things backwards (ie. problems or equations).
They also cannot see things from other points of view because they are egocentric.
• Decentration, Reversibility, Conservation
• We can now organize and categorize as well as master the conservation task.
• Formal Operational Abstraction, lots of cognitive development, critical thinking, problem solving.
• Infants are not as strong with their schemes. For example, children may have a scheme for
“dog” because they have a dog next door. The dog is big and brown, therefore the scheme
they have is “big, brown dog.”
This means if they see a big brown cat they will still call it a dog until the learn more
information for schemes.
Fig 11.10 – Piaget’s stage theory. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development identifies four stages
marked by fundamentally different modes of thinking through which youngsters evolve. The