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PSYC 1002
Kim O' Neil

PSYC 1002 Thursday January 30th, 2014 Housekeeping • Our exam is TWO WEEKS from today. Next week will be our last class for the midterm content. The exam will be 2 hours long. • The midterm exam covers chapters 9, 10, 11 and 12. Early Emotional Development:Attachment • Separation anxiety (only happens after the first 7 months) • MaryAinsworth (1979) — Separation anxiety is the main subject of her work. • The strange situation and patterns of attachment. Secure • Distressed when mom leaves, and happy when mom returns. • Anxious-ambivalent • Distressed when mom leaves, unsure and still a bit upset when she returns. • Avoidant • Doesn’t care when mom leaves, doesn’t care when mom comes back. • Disorganized/Disoriented (this is very ambiguous and related to abusive environments) • Child is very dazed and confused when mother is present. • Developing secure attachment • Bonding at birth, Daycare, Cultural factors • • Attachment is ESSENTIAL in the first 24 months after birth. • Evolutionary perspectives on attachment Reactive attachment disorder: Inability to attach to someone/anyone. We see this a lot with • criminals because they tend to care less about feelings and people. Daycare Studies • Seeing how high-quality and low-quality daycare affects upbringing (cognitive and • emotional). In low-quality care the children were at an advantage. In low-quality daycare, the children • were at a disadvantage. Bowlby Theory Infants are pre-wired with the ability to attach. He says that we are born with the ability to • make eye contact and smile and do other things that will endear them to a caregiver, to draw them in and make an attachment. Freud Theory Attachment is about survival and feeding. He says babies will bond with a caretaker because • they want to be fed and that person will feed them. Harlow Experiment This experiment shows that it doesn't matter who or what serves at the “mother figure,” all that • matters is warmth, comfort and food. Stage Theories of Development: Personality • Stage theories, three components. • Progress through stages in order. Progress through stages related to age. • Erik Erikson (1963) • Eight stages spanning the lifespan • Psychosocial crisis determining balance between opposing polarities in personality. • Freud was the first to discover that your early childhood environment has a huge impact on • later life. Erikson caught onto this and followed up. Fig 11.9 – Erikson’s stage theory. Erikson’s theory of personality development posits that people evolve through eight stages over the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychosocial crisis that involves confronting a fundamental question, such as “Who am I and where am I going?” The stages are described in terms of alternative traits that are potential outcomes from the crises. Development is enhanced when a crisis is resolved in favor of the healthier alternative (which is listed first for each stage). Stage Theories: Cognitive Development Jean Piaget (1920s-1980s) • Assimilation/Accommodation • 4 stages and major milestones • Sensorimotor • • Object permanence: Knowing something exists even when it’s not in front of you. Piaget says this is not apparent in children under 7 months of age. He says that separation anxiety occurs when objet permanence occurs because this is • when the child will know that the caretaker is gone but can come back. Pre-operational • Centration, Egocentrism, this is also around the time that speaking begins. • • Children at this age do not understand things backwards (ie. problems or equations). They also cannot see things from other points of view because they are egocentric. Concrete Operational • • Decentration, Reversibility, Conservation • We can now organize and categorize as well as master the conservation task. • Formal Operational Abstraction, lots of cognitive development, critical thinking, problem solving. • Scheme • • Infants are not as strong with their schemes. For example, children may have a scheme for “dog” because they have a dog next door. The dog is big and brown, therefore the scheme they have is “big, brown dog.” This means if they see a big brown cat they will still call it a dog until the learn more • information for schemes. Fig 11.10 – Piaget’s stage theory. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development identifies four stages marked by fundamentally different modes of thinking through which youngsters evolve. The approximat
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