Thursday February 6th, 2014
• Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
• Structure of personality
•ID: Pleasure principal
EGO: Reality principal
Levels of awareness
• Sex and aggression, anxiety, defines mechanisms
Freud on Development
Sexual = physical pleasure
• Psychosexual stages
• Oral,Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital.
• Fixation = Excessive gratification or frustration.
Overemphasis on psychosexual needs during fixated stage.
Freud says that if we do not exercise sexual gratification it is possible to get “fixated” in a
certain stage and not progress as a normal person.
It is in the Phallic stage that the child starts to sexually desire the opposite-sex parent (oedipus
and electra complex).
Other Psychodynamic Theorists
• Carol Jung
Ideas come out as different symbols, and they come out as words.
Jung’s vision of the collective unconscious.
• Much like Freud, Jung theorized that each person has conscious and unconscious levels of
awareness. However, he also proposed that the entire human race shares a collective
unconscious, which exists in the deepest reaches of everyone’s awareness.
He saw the collective unconscious as a storehouse of hidden ancestral memories, called
archetypes. Jung believed that important cultural symbols emerge from these universal
Thus, he argued that remarkable resemblances among symbols from disparate cultures (such
as the mandalas) are evidence of the existence of the collective unconscious.
Important for us to strive to be better.
Early environment and conflicts where we can’t advance/start to feel inferior to others.
• Birth order can also impact personality.
Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives
• Insights regarding
• The unconscious
• The role of internal conflict
The importance of early childhood experiences
Poor testability: We can’t very well test Freud.
• Inadequate empirical base: Freud tested people but made a general assumption based on a
small group of people.
Sexist views: Many of these views have been seen as sexist and favouriting to males.
Conditioning and response tendencies
Social learning theory
Cognitive processes and reciprocal determinism
• Observational learning, models (learning from seeing)
The person-situation controversy: As the situation changes, so will you.
The interactional approach
• Staunch behaviourists devote little attention to the structure of personality because it is
unobservable, but they implicitly view personality as an individual’s collection of response
• Apossible hierarchy of response tendencies for a specific stimulus
situation is shown here.
Bandura’s reciprocal determinism
• Bandura rejects Skinner’s highly deterministic view that freedom
is an illusion and argues that internal mental events, external
environmental contingencies, and overt behaviour all influence one
Evaluating Behavioural Perspectives
• Based on rigorous research.
Insights into effects of learning and environmental factors.
Not interested in things you can’t test (such as emotions).
• Over-dependence on animal-research.
• Fragmented view of personality (doe not allow, for example, for people acting happy when
they are actually sad. It does not work out).
• Dehumanizing views.
• Person-Centred Theory (putting you back in the drivers seat).
• Self-concept: There are very subtle messages that tell us we need to change. Ex. mom says
good job when you do well in school but when you don’t, she sends negative vibes.
• Conditional/unconditional positive regard.
• Incongruence and anxiety. Abraham Maslow
• Hierarchy of needs
• The healthy personality
Rogers’s view of personality structure.
• In Rogers’s model, the