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Chapter 14 psychological disorders.docx

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PSYC 1002
Lorena Ruci

Chapter 14 psychological disorders There are a lot on misconceptions. In the 1900 and going back., people who suffered from psych disorders were considered to be overtaken by demons, idea that was someone with their soul, idea of negative divine intervention. Some treatments included burning people alive etc. The medical model: Abnormal behavior = disease. There is an actual biological cause to psychological illnesses. Caused from abnormalities in people’s neurochemistry. What is abnormal behavior? 3 criteria: 1. Deviant. Different from what is acceptable. Odd behavior, deviates from the normal, unusual according to the norms in a society. Highly contextual, depends on culture, situation, age group, gender. When this is evaluated, context is taken into consideration. • Kabul person is scared someone will shoot him, he is paranoid. Same person in Ottawa would be considered deviant. 2. Dysfunction/Maladaptive. Everyday adaptive behavior is impaired. Maladaptive with respect to disruption in people’s everyday life. Cannot go to work, school, drive , be social. • Examples: being scared of the sun, scared of people, level of impatience and impulsiveness. Level of drinking. 3. Causing personal distress. Can have 2 obligations: they recognize they are bad, cannot focus and know it’s affecting their lives OR they affect the lives of others, hurt others. • Depression or psychopaths It is not a yes or no variable, normality is a continuum because there are many factors affecting what is and is not normal. Prevalence, Causes and Course Epidemiology: study of the distribution in the population. Strong knowledge in several area of study. Prevalence: % in the population that has or demonstrates or diagnosed with a psychological disorder at a specific time. Lifetime prevalence: greater number reflecting the proportion of people that can or have been diagnosed with a particular psychological disorder at one point in their lives. Diagnosis: Distinguish one illness from another. Etiology: refers to examination of the factors that cause or likely to cause an illness. Prognosis: Forecast about the course of the illness, will you get better, worse, progression. Ex: schizophrenic diagnosed later in life with treatment will have better chances, compared to people diagnosed in late teens early 20s. Psychodiagnosis: classification of disorders Insurance companies depend on the manual and every psychologist and psychiatrist also use the same book to standardize everything. APA: American psychiatric association. th DSM 5TR: diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5 ed. Clinical syndromes: Anxiety disorders Feeling of apprehension, worry, fear of the unknown, anxiety. Stress is usually the response of the organism to a short term or perceived long term stress, you can identify the cause of the stress, but anxiety cannot verbalize the cause, focuses on fear. Women much more likely. • Generalized anxiety disorder. Free-floating anxiety, anxious all the time, cannot say why they are anxious, feel the symptoms, can be debilitating, can feel physiological symptoms, chronic. • Phobic disorder. People have specific focus of the fear, irrational fear, phobias. o Coalrophobia(clowns), omphalmophobia(navel),pogomophobia(beards) • Panic disorder and agoraphobia. Recurrent attacks of anxiety that are acute, experience the wave of anxiety that causes physical symptoms, these attacks are paralyzing, people who are not instructed on how to deal with them will isolate themselves because of the fear of being in public and that is agoraphobia. • Obsessive compulsive disorder. Debilitating condition, need to have obsessions (uncontrollable thought intrusion, attacked by aliens, bacteria crawl on their skin) and compulsions (uncontrollable behavioral ritual, hand washing, on and off lights, locking and unlocking doors) • PTSD. Emotional numbness, sleep disorders, depression, irritability, guilt, arises after an extreme trauma and comes back in flashbacks. Malinger: try to fake symptoms to sue bosses for money. The earlier the treatment the better. Etiology: • Biological factors: genetic predisposition (twin studies), anxiety sensitivity, GABA circuits in the brain, low levels of gaba are more prone to anxiety disorders. • Conditioning and learning: classical and observational conditioning, maintained through operant conditioning. Ex: trapped in a closet as a child, afraid it’s dark and little, adult will avoid being in elevators, and small spaces, grew into a phobia. • Cognitive factors: judgments of per
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