o Used to be referred to as child psychology
o Children do not think the same as adults
o Cognition refers to the inner processes that lead to knowing
o We are interacting with stuff and that either holds us back or moves us forward
o Jean Piaget – “constructivist” approach.
o Schemas – mental framework we use that contains all the expectations that we have.
They change as we age.
o Assimilation (using an existing schema to interpret the world) andAccommodation
o Sensorimotor Period – 0-2 yr, learn by sensory and motor experiences; hearing, touching,
smelling. Lack object permanence.
o Pre-operational – 2-7 yrs, learn hundreds of thousands of words. Symbolic thoughts.
Make believe. Learning to express ourselves. Lack of Conservation.
Concrete Operational 7-11
o Mental operations
o Understanding of identity
o Less egocentricity
Formal Operational 11+
o More adult like thinking
o Think logically about the abstract and thee world of ideas
o Not necessarily develop in stages
o Zone of Proximal Development: The gap between what you can accomplish on your own
and what you can accomplish with a little bit of help.
o Development of our sense of right and wrong o Kohlberg: Dedicated his life to see what would make normal people do impossibly bad
things to other normal people. Three developmental levels
Pre-conventional Level: early childhood, all about self-interest.All about
reinforcement and punishment.
Conventional: late childhood, peer network gets more important. Interacting with
other adults such as teachers. Still concerned about parents rules, but you’re very
concerned with societies rules.
Post-conventional: late adolescence, all about principles of justice.All about your
code of ethics. May try to change the rules of society when they end up in conflict
of the rule