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Chapter 10: Motivation (1)

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PSYC 1002
Lorena Ruci

Lecture 1: Chapter 10 Motivation  Perspectives on motivation: o Motivational type (what people want to do) o Motivational strength (how strongly they want to do it)  Drive theories o Homeostasis o Drive: internal state of tension that motivates us to engage in activities to reduce tension  Incentive theories o Regulation by external stimuli  People need to work so they can make money and survive  Money = positive incentive  Negative/punishment incentives  Motivation is regulated by someone else  Evolutionary theories o Maximizing reproductive success  Everything we do are proposed to lead to reproductive success  Presentable, successful, friendly, etc. you have a higher chance of finding a mate, and therefore more successful with reproduction  Biological and social motives o No absolute distinction; go hand-in-hand o Biological motive: sleeping, eating, temperature regulation, sex o In order to achieve reproductive success, you can’t feel hungry or not well rested in order to feel motivated; once those biological motives they can couple with social motives, and achieve biological success Self-Determination Theory*  Inherent growth tendencies  Basic premise: humans are naturally active and seek opportunities to learn and grow  Humans should be free to pursue: o Autonomy, competence, relatedness  Paradox: giving incentives didn’t lead to success o If you give money to someone, the most likely outcome is the money would reward a behaviour and the behaviour would increase o Sometimes, this doesn’t happen  Not necessarily measured by external rewards/incentives  Need to feel like they’re a part of something bigger than themselves, need to relate to other people  Type of motivation: o Intrinsic (inherently interesting, enjoyable) – ACR  Acting, painting, etc. o Extrinsic (rewards, avoiding punishment)  Cleaning, studying, etc. o Behaviour might be the same, but motivation is different (e.g. volunteering) The Candle Problem*  Problem: fix a lighted candle on a wall so that wax won’t drip onto the table o Box of matches and a box of thumbtacks  Two groups: experimental ($) and control groups  Control group faster by 3 ½ minutes than experimental  Rewards compromised motivation The Over-Justification Effect*  When external incentives (e.g. money) decrease a person’s intrinsic motivation to perform a task  Intrinsic motivations are compromised by external rewards  Does this happen with all tasks? Are rewards ineffective?  Second study: same study, different layout  Experimental group faster because they had no intrinsic motivation to be compromised  Important points: o Incentives not always effective o Intrinsic motivations much more effective in maintaining behaviour because they’re more enjoyable Motivation of Hunger and Eating  Brain regulation o Lateral and ventromedual hypothalamus (off-on switch) o Paraventricular nucleus (regulate hunger) o Arcuate nucleus (neurons capture hunger signals) o Neuropetide Y, serotonin and ghrelin  Glucose and digestive regulation
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