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Chapter 10: Motivation (3)

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PSYC 1002
Lorena Ruci

Lecture 3: Sexuality and Motivation Asexuality*  Defined as a lack of sexual desire, or seeking sexual partners, and a lack of attraction to any gender  First discovered in the 50s; Kingsley o Checkmark where people could say they had no sexual desires at all  Limited research; research on orientation started in late 60s and 70s  Little evidence that suggests that defines asexuality  Diagnostic Statistic Manual (DSM) defies asexuality: deficiency in sexual desire, or abstinence of sexual fantasies and sexual activities; condition that people don’t like to have, accompanied by personal distress  Relevant to about 1% of the population; don’t think they are missing something  Gender differences: women more likely to be asexual than men  Issue: what is considered normal sexual desire?  Not clear whether asexuality is lifelong or acquired Human Sexual Response*  Excitement o A lot of physical arousal that escalates in both men and women; blood flow increases, heart rate increases, etc.  Plateau o If arousal remains and stays constant, then plateau will occur  Orgasm o If plateau is consistent, orgasm will occur o Intense feeling of pleasure, euphoria, muscle tension o Several seconds to a couple of minutes for women o Neurological changes: certain neurotransmitters/hormones/chemicals whose levels are increased to a high peak  Dopamine: pleasure and motivation; main hormone that increases  Prolactin (satiation): experience content  Oxytocin: want to feel physical closeness  Receptors of androgen hormones (MEN ONLY)  Resolution o Dopamine levels drop very fast after this stage  If people who have an orgasm feel emotional attraction, the PEA hormone acts o Stimulant, found in chocolate  Dopamine decreases the fastest in men, oxytocin levels stay high in women and slowly begin to drop  Men go through the excitement phase, plateau for a little, then reach orgasm, and the resolution  If men don’t achieve orgasm, they will stay in plateau for a while, and arousal will stop  Only women can have multiple orgasms right after each other before experiencing resolution  WHICH STAGE ARE GENDER DIFFERENCES MORE PRONOUNCED? Achievement Motivation  The need to do well, out-perform others, have high degree of excellence, etc.  Characteristics: work hard, persistent, good at exercising self control, tend to pursue careers, competitive, upward mobility, rewards for mobility are rewarding to them, delay gratification  Situational factors that determine whether someone will exercise need for achievement; some don’t pursue goals that would gain them the most 1. nAch (need for achievement): stable personality trait, innate need to compete and win; calculated by questionnaires 2. Probability of Success
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