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Chapter 11: Human Development (2)

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PSYC 1002
Lorena Ruci

Lecture 8: Human Development Early Emotional Development: Attachment  Attachment style: the close emotion bonds that a child develops with their primary caregiver (usually the mother, but not necessarily)  Separation Anxiety o The strange situation and patterns of attachments o A paradigm that refers to the reaction of a child after he/she has been left alone by the caregiver o How much anxiety the child displays when he/she is separated and not comforted anymore by the caregiver o Secure: 65%, Anxious-ambivalent: 10%, Avoidant: 20%, Disorganized or Disoriented: 5-10%  Secure Attachment: categorized by upset behaviour, and the child isn’t comforted by toys or a stranger, but only when the caregiver returns  Anxious-ambivalent: child protests when caregiver leaves, feel uncomfortable when stranger enters room instead of just assessing and would cling to the caregiver; when the child left, the child was inconsolable, and child couldn’t calm down when caregiver returns  Avoidant: seek little contact with caregiver, don’t notice or don’t get upset when caregiver leaves, don’t need as much comfort; independent, don’t need constant reassurance, don’t notice the stranger or surroundings; focused on what he/she is doing  Disorganized/Disoriented: inconsistent behaviour, can show behaviours from all categories; only consistent factor is it’s unpredictable  Developing secure attachment o Attachment has been said to be linked to the child’s temperament o To an extent, attachment is slightly based on biological factors o Bonding at birth: first few months very important in developing attachment style; trust, have needs met, will develop interactive processes with caregiver o Cultural factors: varying styles for raising children in different countries; German children are usually avoidant o Daycare: detrimental to developmental health of children because they lack interaction with caregiver  It’s actually beneficial to developmental health, helps them be more adaptable and sociable  Evolutionary perspectives on attachment o Genetic temperament in child plays a role in how parents interact with child o If child is interactive, then parents tend to them more; whereas if a child is withdrawn, parents interact less o Children who learned interaction with parents are more likely to survive Stage Theories of Development: Personality  Erik Erikson’s theory* o Two main principles: as the world gets bigger, the way a child deals with the world gets more complex; and, failure is cumulative o Linear progression of personality development from birth to death o The inability to resolve an issue in one stage of personality development will carry on to other stages o Eight stages spanning the lifespan  Stage theories, three components: o Progress through stages in order o Progress through stages related to age  Age ranges that children go through problems that need to be resolved (psychosocial crisis); health depends on resolution o Major discontinuities in development  Psychosocial crisis: trust vs. mistrust  STAGE 1: if their needs are met, they don’t trust the environment; healthy resolution of crisis is trust in first year of life  STAGE 2: child receives more responsibility (dressing, feeding, interacting); crisis is called autonomy vs. shame and doubt; if child successfully learns how to dress, they receive autonomy; unhealthy resolution is doubt and shame (year 2-3)  STAGE 3: crisis is called initiative vs. guilt, about age 6; learn rules of society and need to abide by rules; at the same time, because they mastered autonomy, they learn they can take some initiative; child needs to balance between
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