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Chapter 11: Human Development (3)

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PSYC 1002
Lorena Ruci

Lecture 9: Human Behaviour Criticisms of Piaget  No clear cut distinctions (for all stage theories)  Hasn’t been updated, never translated to English, never doubted or challenged, didn’t propose any alterations to his theory  Neglects the effect of culture on cognitive development o Children in different cultures tend to reach milestones at different time (individualistic vs. collective cultures) After Piaget: Pascual-Leone  Implicated information processing concepts  The way a child masters certain tasks with levels of complexity depends on their maturity level  The reason they can grasp complex tasks later in life, and not earlier, depends on the concept of M-Capacity  M-Capacity is the number of mental concepts held in the short-term memory at once o The norm is 7  The higher the CPU of a computer, the faster the computer; the higher the M- Capacity, the more capable people are of completing complex tasks (require maturity) Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory  Didn’t receive recognition until the 70s  It was published in Russian, and not translated to English until later on; detriment  The way that children acquire knowledge and develop cognitively is due to an interaction of factors:  Social interactions o The more they interact and explore, the faster they will acquire cognitive milestones  Culture o Interaction of culture and language are not easily separated o Encouraged to be more free and independent, given opportunity to learn by themselves o In other cultures, guiding and controlling a child o Caregiver needed to care for child vs. extended family  Language development o Critical 6 month period: if this is missed (isolation/abuse/deprivation), then children will have difficulty learning language later on in life o Acquisition of language: if a child has been deprived, they will have difficulty acquiring the ability to learn more than one language o Brain is receptive to mastering sounds and structures of a language o Brain plasticity/sensitivity to receiving output  Zone of Proximal Development o When children learn new skills, they don’t master the spectrum of the different interaction that ability can involve; learn to do something in a simple way o If they’re taught, they can do the skill in different concepts o The zone is the space that describes what the child can already do o Learn to tie shoes > tie a bow in hair  Scaffolding o The best way to teach something is to break down the instruction into small steps o When children are more receptive to learning things, it depends on what they already know; then you can modify the learning based on what ability you want them to acquire Critical Periods in Development*  The story of Danielle Crockett  Http://  Can only assume that an extended period of neglect/isolation, means the person will not be able to take care of themselves  Still can’t speak, very little communication skills The Development of Moral Reasoning: Kohlberg  Reasoning as opposed to behaviour  Moral dilemmas  Measure nature and progression of moral reasoning  Moral reasoning: attitude towards people/things, make decisions between right and wrong  Had children of several ages, read them a story, and based on their decision and justification, he would categorize them under a level of moral development  Three levels, with 2 sublevels each Pre-conventional 1. OBEDIENCE: We shouldn’t do things we’re punished for
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