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Chapter 13: Stress, Coping, and Health (2)

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PSYC 1002
Lorena Ruci

Lecture 13: Stress, Coping, and Health Stress  Major stressors vs. routine stressors o Cumulative nature of stress o Cognitive appraisals  Contagious diseases vs. chronic diseases o Biopsychosocial model o Thought that most diseases were infectious agents; now, with advances in medicine and nutrition, those illnesses have been eradicated o What we see today is illnesses arisen from the cumulative effect of the way o life people live o Stress is one of the main components of these illnesses; heart disease, lung disease, etc. are part of a modern lifestyle  Acute vs. chronic o Frustration: blocked goal; unable to achieve goals o Conflict: two or more incompatible motivations (low/moderate/high)  Approach-approach: try to decide between two goals that have positive consequences; stress is conceptualized to be low  Approach-avoidance: try to make a choice by making a cost-benefit analysis; decide whether to date someone or not; stress is moderate  Avoidance-avoidance: choose between two equally bad things; unemployed vs. having unsatisfying job; stress is very high o Change: people want to maintain the status quo and don’t like change, but they have to adapt  Holmes and Rabe: social readjustment rating scale; life change units o Pressure: expectations to behave in a certain way  Expressed: perform/conform Responding to Stress Emotionally  An inherent emotional response, that’s mostly negative, to stress  Estress: body goes through distress while training for a marathon, but when you win the race, the chronic aspect of the training is a positive stress, because it leads to a sense of mastery, self-confidence, success, etc. o Watching a horror movie, riding roller coasters, exercising  Emotional responses o Annoyance, anger, rage o Apprehension, anxiety, fear o Dejection, sadness, grief o Positive emotions  Stressor → subjective appraisal → response  Emotional response and performance o The inverted-U-hypothesis o Related to emotional arousal o Theory that states that people’s performance in certain tasks can be maximal when the tasks are easy and arousal is high o Easy tasks don’t require a lot of cognitive effort; a maximal level of arousal would lead to optimal performance o In a state of half-consciousness, the tasks will not be done well o A task of moderate difficulty; if the arousal increases, it will eventually drop because it’s more cognitively challenging than a simple task (bell) o To master a complex task, you must be very alert and concentrated; with a low level of ar
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