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Chapter 15: Treatment of Psychological Disorders (2)

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Carleton University
PSYC 1002
Lorena Ruci

Lecture 18: Chapter 15 Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy  Aaron Beck o Cognitive therapy o Correct habitual thinking errors that underlie various disorders o E.g., rejection by a romantic partner  I’m not good enough  nobody will ever love me  Albert Ellis o Rational-emotive therapy o A person is affected by his/her own views, perceptions, internalized beliefs about the world, based on your own insecurities or predisposition to expect the worst o Miss-constructing/misinterpret the reality/world o E.g., a friend doesn’t acknowledge you and you think they’re mad at you o If you change the way people think, it will change the way they see things  Donald Meichenbaum o Goal: to change the way clients think through self-instructional training o Therapist teaches client to detect and recognize negative thoughts o Reality testing o Used for anxiety/stress disorders, not really MD  Both cognitive aspects of therapy and behavioural methods  Organized around three different categories of maladaptive ways of thinking, or errors in judgment occur at three levels: o Automatic Thoughts: immediate reactions to situations that we can’t control because we don’t have time to think about it; goes undetected, makes us feel negative; e.g. a friend doesn’t notice you, so they think I’m weird o Intermediate Beliefs: important in maintaining a constant flow of a pattern of thinking; those thought patterns that we use to assess situations; not as immediate; based on things we’re afraid will happen that aren’t based on reality; e.g. If I drive for a long time I’m more likely to get in an accident and die o Core Beliefs: at the deepest level of thinking that have to do with the way we think about ourselves, the way we expect to be treated by others, the perceptions we have about the world; much more general; targeting these means you have to find the root of the problem; e.g. I won’t get my diploma because I’m worthless  Mindfulness based on cognitive therapy o Attention regulation and accepting approach to experience o Preventing relapse of past depression sufferers o Focus and accept troubling thoughts without elaborating, ruminating o Stepping back from maladaptive automatic reactions  Evaluating behaviour therapies Cognitive-Bias Modification (CBM)*  Cognitive bias = pattern of deviation in judgment o E.g., a friend passes by and doesn’t acknowledge you o Anxiety associated with tendency to interpret information negatively o Used to treat alcoholism, OCD, panic attacks, anxiety o Modify behaviour, from maladaptive and negative to positive and normal  Modify impulsive responses  Computerized therapy o Repeated exposure to stimuli in training people to respond in positive, rather than anxiety provoking manners o E.g., changing focus on pictures
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