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Chapter 15: Treatment of Psychological Disorders (3) & Chapter 16: Social Behaviour (2)

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PSYC 1002
Lorena Ruci

Lecture 19: Chapter 15 Biomedical Therapy  Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)  Electric shock produces a cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions and spasms  Four to ten treatments, each lasting 6-30 seconds  Treatments spaced between 2-4 weeks  Anesthesia and muscle relaxants  At present: administered to non-dominant hemisphere (right for most) o Reduces confusion and memory loss (fewer side effects)  Relapse confusion and memory loss  In almost all cases there are cognitive side effects  Side effects: o Retrograde amnesia (can’t remember past events) o Anterograde amnesia (can’t learn new things – most affected, can recover) o Confusion when waking o Loss of balance  Used as a last resort when psychotherapy doesn’t work  Discovered in early 30-40s, used intensively by psychiatrists  Used so often because they didn’t have the drugs we have now, like anti- depressants, that work effectively  Received bad reputation because offside effects; portrayed negatively in the media, i.e. used as a punishment method, which wasn’t the case  Was discontinued for a while  Been proven that it improves a person when administered correctly and other treatment doesn’t work  Has to be accompanied by drug treatment in low doses to maintain the effectiveness of the treatment, because after 6 months, a relapse rate is high Why does the electrical current create mood elevation in patients with depression? 1. Has to do with the way the drugs work; facilitate release of neurotransmitters or making serotonin and dopamine more efficient in synapses 2. Current acts as reset button between mood (positively) and memory (negatively) 3. Current might stimulate branching of the neurons in areas of brain; having more connections between the neurons is a good thing (empirical evidence) New Brain Stimulation Techniques  Transcranial-Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) o Enhance or depress activity in specific brain regions o Experimental treatment for depression o Magnetic coil over scalp o Very few side effects; none associated with ECT or drug therapy o No cortical seizure or convulsions; some itching on the scalp o Treatments are spaced, 5-6 weeks total o Therapeutic effect o In some patients with comorbid depression and schizophrenia, some delusions/hallucinations tend to subside  Deep brain stimulation o Penetrates skull, enters area of brain associated with mood o Platinum wire connected to pulse generator o Selective brain stimulation o Treats tremors associated with Parkinson’s  Not used as a treatment for depression How to Help a Depressed Person  Depression hurts o Recognize the sins, be attuned to progression of illn
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