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Chapter 12: Personality (2)

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PSYC 1002
Lorena Ruci

Lecture 11: Personality Freud  Proposed a theory of mind that we call psychoanalysis  Collected data from case studies from patients that he saw  His theory was the first to be proposed by a psychologist; was the first that focused on the importance of early childhood experiences and how profound they can be in forming personality  He focused on childhood experiences, starting from birth until adulthood  There are many misconceptions about his theory; he proposed many things that hold today, but he also proposed a lot of things that are irrational and illogical  Many of the things he said that made no sense were about sexuality, especially female sexuality  Theory focuses on the unconscious  He proposed that when children are born, they start with one basic premise, which is wanting to satisfy their primitive needs and desires; when born, people have animalistic desires to be fed, clothed, warmed  The id is an aspect of personality that is instinctive; wants to be satisfied immediately; stubborn, stupid, doesn’t abide to reality; urges when born  People can’t function well in society if they abide by animalistic urges; so eventually, children learn its not enough to get things you want, you have to plan things in advance in order to get things  This translates to: learning to abide by laws, or suppress urges  Ego follows reality principle; need to follow rules of society to get what you want  On the other side of the spectrum, is the superego: expresses principle of one’s conscience; a moral compass o It symbolizes all the aspects, morals of society that tend to function in a way to keep the id in place  Children learn how suppress the id early in life because there’s a constant dialogue between the id and superego; children learn how to make decisions and display behaviour in a way that’s civilized and expressed by the ego  Personality is set by the time a child is 4-5 years old (don’t believe this today) o Many of his stages of development end at 5 years of age for women and men  Put id in place by superego by weighing pros and cons of doing something (adult)  Ego is neutralizing aspect of the dialogue that happens  Freud focuses on two social motives: sex and aggression o If you’re angry, the id’s reaction is to hurt someone o Superego says you can’t do that because you’ll be punished  Id and superego are constantly clashes; behaviour displayed by what ego states Levels of Awareness  Conscious: understand what you’re talking about; understand the meaning/concepts, processing information by taking notes, etc.  Preconscious: refer back to short-term memories; if you’re hungry, you might remember what you ate for lunch  Unconscious: not aware what influences your behaviour; suppress memories of trauma; influence of memories occurs at conscious level  Sometimes ego can’t neutralize the other two; when people unfulfilled desires, they live in anxiety, which leads people to find ways to cope because anxiety is unpleasant and disruptive to behaviour  People have found ways to deal with anxiety; we do this in many forms (defense mechanisms)  Sometimes they rely on defense mechanisms even when they don’t realize what they’re doing (TEXTBOOK)  People learn how to rely on defense mechanisms early in life and continue using them in adulthood  It’s healthy to find a way to ease anxiety short-term but what’s bad is when people rely on them too much  Routinely used by almost everyone: rationalization o Talks about making a plausible explanation that’s untrue but helps people with explaining and adjusting their behaviour  They can lose touch with reality and lose the sense of what’s real if they overuse rationalization (DEFINITION AND EXAMPLE OF MECHANISMS TABLE 12.2)  Not limited to these types, they’re unlimited  Purpose for mechanisms is to find a short-term fix for their anxiety  Sublimation: occurs when people try to modify/tame an impulse o The most destructive are sex and aggression  Turn an urge into something socially acceptable  People who enjoy engaging in violent sports, they do so because of sublimation o This makes it okay to be violent, within the competitive context Development: Psychological Stages  Sexual = physical pleasure  Five stages of personality development  Each associated with an erogenous zone and crisis to solve  Getting stuck in one stage or not resolving the crisis is very bad for development Psychosexual Stages (TEXT)  Oral Stage o Where most people start off o Mouth associated with pleasure; children suck and chew on objects o Mouth is primary source of pleasure because that’s how they receive nourishment o Issue with getting stuck is when children are prematurely weaned off breastfeeding; if this happens in a way that the child isn’t ready, the child will be stuck o As an adult, this is demonstrated as loving putting things in their mouths (e.g. smoking as an addiction, or overeating)  Anal Stage o Associated with retaining feces o The problem that can occur when getting stuck in this stage: results from improper toilet training o Inability to retain feces and bodily functions will be manifested in personality development later in life o Their personality will become strict, organized, stingy, compulsive, etc.  Phallic Stage o Pleasure associated with genitals o Both boys and girls explore with their bodies o Two things might happen: boys might experience Oedipus complex, girls Electra complex (Penis envy) o Boys get through the stage by suppressing need to kill father o Girls realize in this stage that they have no penis, and might think someone stole it, and feel frustration/anxiety; identify and want to marry the father (CARL JUNG) o Eventually child will recognize they’re not as powerful as mother/father and can’t carry out plan  Latency Stage o Nothing happens sexually because the child is still recuperating from terrible progression in phallic stage o Thoughts and desires suppressed o Lasts 6-12 years of age o Don’t focus on gaining pleasure from body, but building social networks and exploring the world o More self-efficient  Genital Stage o Genitals are the focus of attention from healthier perspective o Nothing to do with parents; try and establish relationships and seek contact with others Other Psychodynamic Theorists  Carl Jung o Analytical psychology o Personal and collective unconscious  Level of pursuing goals without them being conscious; pursuing goals that ensure survival for your groups, and is demonstrated throug
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