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Lecture

4 Ethics.docx

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2001
Professor
Guy Lacroix

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Ethics Iam veryglad to have 40% beenin the experiment 15% Iam glad to have been in the experiment Iam neither sorrynor 0% glad to have been inthe experiment Iam sorry to have been inthe experiment Iam verysorry to have beenin the experiment 44% Ethics - The Nuremberg trials • The doctors’trial / The Nuremberg code • The Milgram experiments (1963, 1964, 1965) - Canadian Tri-Council Ethical research Guidelines • Institutional review boards - Animal Research - Ethical issues for undergraduates • Publication credit • Plagiarism The Nuremberg Trials - Following WWII (1945-1949), Nazi regime officials were tried for war crimes. - The Nuremberg Trials were a catalyst for reflection on the ethical aspects of conducting scientific research with humans - Conducted research with prisoners in concentration camps. • Air force pilots that crashed in cold water. So wanted to test how long humans could last in freezing cold water. So put Jewish prisoner in tank and timed how long it would take them to die. Nuremberg: the doctors’trial - During WWII, the Nazis also conducted many cruel (and often lethal) experiments: • Hypothermia • Malaria • Sterilization - Seven perpetrators were sentenced to death in 1948. Nuremberg Code (1949) - Voluntary consent • Willing participants that were not coerced into participating in the experiment • Informed consent - Fruitful results • Generate knowledge that is useful - Based on appropriate knowledge • Can’t improvise self as researcher, need to be trained - Minimal suffering • That the pain is the least including anxiety, fear, making them feel uneasy - No death (except when experimenter = participant) - Risks proportional to benefits • Not saying no suffering, but whatever it is, it is outweighed by the benefits - Risks anticipated • Researcher put in writing what could go wrong what could happen - Scientifically qualified experimenters - Participants’right to withdraw • Anytime they are able to say they’re done - Experimenters’responsibility to discontinue • If you feel participant can’t take it anymore, you need to stop. The Migram Experiments (1963; 1964; 1965) - Milgram wanted to understand Obedience. - Why did so many German soldiers “just follow orders”? - It was a very traumatizing time for everyone and how they reacted are very important - Wanted to show there was nothing genetically wrong with the Germans Participants Occupations 20-29 30-39 40-50 % occupations years years years Workers, skilled and 4 5 6 37.5 unskilled Sales, business, and 3 6 7 40.0 white-collar Professional 1 5 3 22.5 % age 20.0 40.0 40.0 Procedure - The experiment is held at Yale University - Cover story: the impact of punishment (electrical shock) on learning - The teacher and “student” are selected “at random”. - The “student” must learn pairs of words. When the “student” is wrong, the teacher must administer a shock. - They had a confederate working with them - The participant was not told that there was a confederate - The teacher was always the participant and student was always a confederate - When student is wrong, the teacher gives a shock Shocking procedure - Teachers are also told to increase the voltage after each wrong answer Feedback from the student - Up to 300 volts: no feedback - 300 volts: pounding on the wall – no answer - 315 volts: More pounding – no answer - 330 and up: No response Experimenter prompts - The experimenter would use the following prompts that when the participant would want to leave - Please continue. - The experiment requires that you continue - It is absolutely essential that you continue - You have no other choice, you must go on Dependent measure and predictions - The experiment stops if the teachers fail to administer a shock after the 4 prompts. - The dependent measure is the last shock administered. - At what voltage would a “regular” person stop? - At what voltage would you stop? Results (1963) - 14 participants “defied” the experimenter; 26 fully complied Conclusions - Milgram showed that the majority of people obey orders. - Is this study ethical? - Did the benefits of this experiment outweigh the negative effects for the participants? - Were participants properly informed about the experiment (informed consent)? Level of tension and nervousness reported by the participants (the teachers) - Did the benefits of this experiment outweigh the negative effects for the participants? Milgram’s (1963) Obedience study - Did the benefits of this experiment outweigh the negative effects for the participants? Deception - Were participants properly informed about the experiment (voluntary consent)? - Deception: When a researcher is not completely forthright about a study such that a participant cannot give informed consent • Passive deception- withholding information • Active deception- misleading information Who decides what is ethical? - APAethics code (2010) • http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx - Tr
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