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PSYC 2002 (84)


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PSYC 2002
Dean Lauer

Values for variables can be: • Discrete: Convictions, Opinion polls, Mood • Continuous: Blood pressure, Response time, Height Measures of Central Tendency: mean, median, mode. Boxplot: Also called a box and whisker plot • Separates the number of observations into four equal groups • Shows the median • Shows extreme values • Does not show the mean Polygon Graphs • Are very similar to histograms • Frequency graph • Continuous variable • Sclaes can be measured by: Nominal • Ordinal • Interval • Ratio Abscissa (x axis), Ordinate (y axis). SHAPE of a curve: Skew (or stretch), Kurtosis (flatness), Modes (number of peaks). • Bin widths should be the same interval. 8 – 15 bins Variance: Concept: the mean squared deviation (or distance) away from the mean 2 ∑(X-µ) is called the Sum of Squares or SS • Sums of Squares: the sum of the squared deviations away from the mean: Population Variance (σ : or σ = SS/N SD: the mean distance each observation is away from the mean Degrees of Freedom: • We are working with a sample, not the full population • We want to be sure we are reporting the correct mean • We want to increase our variance • Decrease the reported number of observations, we increase the variance • Unbiased if statistic is equal to the population parameter • Biased if it either over- or under-estimates the population parameter Do not use more than 2 decimals when reporting your statistics (in psychology) • z-score A standardized score that measures the number of standard deviations away from the mean. Based on the standard deviation of each set of scores. : z = (X - µ) / sd • z-score transformation A transformation that changes raw scores (X values) into z- scores. • raw score An original, untransformed observation or measurement. • standardized distribution An entire distribution that has been transformed to create predetermined values for μ and
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