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# PSYC 2002B notes.docx

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School
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2002
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Wednesday January 8 2014PSYC 2002B Introduction to Statistics in PsychologyChapter 1 An Introduction to Statistics and Research DesignWeek One ReadingsA 17pp 120 Chapter 1Statistics is a research tool for evaluating dataData is a set of scores or measurements Statistics A numerical fact derived from dataStatistics are used to evaluate the results of experiments did the data support the hypothesisQuantify behaviour about data and its theoretical implications Two branches of statistics1Descriptive statistics Organizes summarizes and communicates a group of numerical observations Summary of measurements ex average2Inferential statistics Uses sample data to make general estimates about the larger populationEnable inferences to be drawn from data Descriptive statistics summarize numerical information about a sampleInferential statistics draw conclusions about the broader population based on numerical information from a sample Systematic versus random effectsIf two groups show a difference is the difference attributable to a systematic difference or is the difference attribute to chanceIf the individuals were randomly assigned to the groups then it is possible to choose between these alternativesGeneralization would a set of results hold if another group of participants were usedoSample subset of individuals from a larger group oPopulation the set of all individuals that have some characteristicDistinguishing between a sample and a population A sample is a set of observations drawn from the population of interestA population includes all possible observations about which wed like to know somethingGeneralization and random samplingGeneralization from sample to population requires a random sampleoEach member of the population has an equal chance of being selected oSelection of any one member is independent of the selection of the other membersScales of MeasurementType of observations determines appropriate type of statistic oNominaloOrdinaloIntervaloRatio Nominal and Ordinal Scales 1Nominal scale observations categorized ex types of professions political affiliation2Ordinal scale observations rank ordered ex Macleans ranking of universities 2013 aka rankordered variable Interval and Ratio Scales3Interval scale all categories have same size Celsius temp4Ratio scale interval scale with an absolute zero point kelvin temp response time percent correct How to transform observations into variables1Variables are any observations of a physical attitudinal or behavioural characteristic that can take on different values 2Discrete observation can take on only specific values ex whole numbers no other values can exist between these numbers Discrete and Continuous VariablesDiscrete variables indivisible categories ex number of participants in a condition number of conditions in an experimentContinuous variables infinite number of possible values ex time length Statistical notationN or nnumber of scores observations ect X Y Zvariable namesWe conduct research to see if the independent variable predicts the dependant variable A good variable is both reliable and valid Correlation research when possible researchers prefer to use an experiment rather than a correlational study Experiments use random assignment which is the only way to determine if one variable causes another
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