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Carleton University
PSYC 2009
Tamy Superle

Chapter 1: Definitional and Historical Considerations and Canada’s Mental Health System Bretts Childhood  His recent inability to maintain an erection when making love to his wife was the immediate reason for his seeking therapy  Brett didn’t have a happy childhood. His mother died suddenly when he was only 6 and for the next 10 yrs he lived either with his father or with a maternal aunt. His father drank heavily and the mans moods were extremely variable; he had even been hospitalized with a diagnosis of manic depressive psychosis  Brett often became depressed for no apparent reason and sometimes this was followed by periods of manic  He felt self conscious with ppl who he felt had authority over him and he was esp sensitive about his clothes which were old compared to his peers  He entered the police academy and he had hopes that his badge and uniform would give him the instant respect that he seemed incapable of earning on his own  He wondered if he was actually avoiding the responsibility of having a child  He attacked her both verbally and physically about her alleged infidelity and then got help  Psychopathology- the field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal beh thoughts and feelings  Challenge in studying abnormal psych is the need to remain objective  Abnormal psysh is most popular but it has one distinct disadvantage which is that all of us bring to your study preconceived notions of what the subject matter is WHAT IS ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY?  Challenge is how to define it  Abnormal beh- patterns of emotion, thought and action deemed pathological for one or more of the following reasons: infrequent occurrence, violation of norms, personal distress, disability or dysfunction and unexpectedness Statistical infrequency  One aspect of abnormal beh is that its infrequent  Normal curve or bell shaped curve- places majority of ppl in the middle as far as any particular characteristic is concerned; very few ppl fall at either extreme.  An assertion that a person is normal implies that he or she does not deviate much from the average in a particular trait or beh patterns  Statistical infrequency is used explicitly in diagnosing mental retardation  When an indiv IQ is below 70 his or her intellectual functioning is considered sufficiently below subnormal to be designated as mental retardation Violation of norms  Consider whether the beh violates norms or threatens or makes anxious those observing it  Violation of norms is too broad and too narrow  Cultural diversity can affect how ppl view social norms. What is the norm in one culture may be abnormal in another Personal distress  Personal suffering ; that is beh is abnormal if it creates distress and torment in the person experiencing it  But some disorders don’t involve distress Disability or dysfunction  Disability –impairment in some important area of life cuz of the abnormality can also be a part of abnormal beh  It applies to some but not all disorders.  Ex transvestism (Cross dressing for sexual pleasure) is diagnosed as a mental disorder if it distresses the person but isn’t necessarily a disability 1 Unexpectedness  Distress and disability are considered abnormal when they are unexpected responses to environmental stressors  There are approx 3,600 practising psychiatrist, 13000 psych and psych associate and 11000 nurses in the metal health area in Canada  2.15% respondents had consulted with a pscyh one or more times in the preceding 12 months. This is = to 515,000 ppl in the Canadian population aged 12 yrs and older  Psychological services are underused  Psych services are more available in urban areas than in rural THE MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONS  Clinician- a health professional authorized to provide services to ppl suffering from one or more pathologies  Clinical psychologist- an indiv who has earned a Ph.D degree in psychology or a Psy.D and whose training has included an internship in a mental hospital or clinic. Entails 4 to 7 yrs of graduate study  A psych may have a either a doctoral or a M.A degree  In some areas psych are for doctoral level and psych associates are for M.A  1995 Agreement on Internal Trade (AIT) was developed so credentials of psych would be recognized from one part of Canada’s would be recognized in other parts  mutual agreement was signed in June 2001. person has to have obtained 5 core competencies in order to become registered as a psych 1) interpersonal relationships 2) assessment and evaluation (including diagnosis) 3)intervention and consultation 4) research 5)ethics and standards  training for a Ph.D in clinical psych is similar to that in other psych specialities. It requires a heavy emphasis on lab work, research design, statistics and the empirically based study of human and animal beh. The Ph.D is a research degree and are require to research and write on it. Those in clinical psych learn two more things 1) learn technique of assessment and diagnosis of metal disorders----- Diagnosis- the determination that a patient’s set of symptoms or problems indicates a particular disorder  -2) they practise psychotherapy --a primarily verbal mans of helping troubled indiv change their thoughts, feelings and behaviours to reduce distress and to achieve greater life satisfaction  the new Psy.D degree (doctor of psych) is similar to Ph.D but there is less emphasis on research and more on clinical training. The Ph.D is more of a scientific practitioner model and the Psy.D is more of a scholar practitioner model  psychiatrist- a physician (M.D) who has taken specialized post doctoral training called a residency in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders  Psychoactive drugs – chemical compounds having a psychological effect that alters mood or thought process. Ex: valium  Psychoanalyst- a therapist who has taken specialized postdoctoral training in psychoanalysis after earning an M.D or a Ph.D degree. Can take up to 10 yrs of graduate work  Social worker- a mental health professional who holds a master of social work (M.S.W) degree  Counselling psychologist- a doctoral level mental health professional whose training is similar to that of a clinical psychologist though usually with less emphasis on research and serious psychopathology  Psychiatric nurse- a nurse who has obtained additional training in the mental health field HISTORY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Early demonology  Demonology- the doctrine that an evil being such as the devil may dwell within a person and control his or her mind and body. Ex found in records of early Chinese, Egyptians, Babylon’s and Greeks  Since they thought ab beh was caused by possession its treatment involved  exorcism -- the casting out of evil spirits by ritualistic chanting or torture. Elaborate rites of prayer, noisemaking, forcing the afflicted to drink terrible tasting brews, and flogging/starvation  Trepanning (of skulls) - the act of making a surgical opening in a living skull by stone age or Neolithic cave dwellers was quite widespread. This act was sometimes performed cuz of the belied that it would allow evil spirits to leave the body  Thought evil sprits would escape through the opening. Introduced into Americas from Siberia. The practise was most common in Per
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