# PSYC 2009 Lecture Notes - Central Tendency, Descriptive Statistics, Scatter Plot

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Published on 27 Jan 2013
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Three types of scientific research:
Naturalistic observations – observation of behaviour of people or animals in
their natural environment
oLeast formal and constrained by fewest rules
oProvide foundation of biological and social sciences
Correlational studies – examination of relations between 2+ measurements
of behaviour or other characteristics of people or animals
oInvolve more formal measurements of environmental events, of
individuals’ physical and social characteristics, and of their behaviour
Experiments – study which researcher changes value of an independent
variable and observes whether this manipulation effects value of dependent
variable
oOnly research which can confirm existence of cause-and-effect
relations among variables
Five steps summarizing the rules of scientific method:
1. Identify the problem and formulate hypothetical cause-and-effect relations
among variables
Involves identifying variables (behaviours and environmental and
physiological events) and describing relations among them in general
terms
2. Design the experiment
experiments involve manipulation of independent variables and
observation of dependent variables
each variable must be operationally defined and independent variable
must be controlled so that it is only thing responsible for changes to
dependent variable
3. Perform experiment
organize material, train people to perform it, recruit volunteers,
randomly assign volunteers to experimental group of control group
4. Evaluate hypothesis by examining data from study
Involves special mathematical procedures used to determine whether
observed effect is statistically significant
5. Communicate results
Article, conferences, conventions
Replication – repetition of an experiment or observational study to see
whether previous results will be obtains; uncovers statistical anomalies
and incompetently conducted research
Great scientific research occurs as result of long-term research programs
in which findings are part of collective endeavour
Psychological research in Canada is supported by:
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council
Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (Medical Research Council)
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Step 1: Identifying the Problem
Hypotheses - statement, usually designed to be tested by an experiment,
that tentatively expresses a cause-and-effect relationship between 2+
events
Theory – set of statements designed to explain a set of phenomena,
proposes relationships among variables, and makes new predictions;
more encompassing than a hypothesis
way of organizing system of related hypotheses to explain some larger
aspect of nature
generates testable hypotheses - ones that can be supported or proved
wrong by scientific research
framework for most psychological research is larger in scope than
hypothesis but smaller in scope than full-fledged theory
Naturalistic Observations
Naturalistics – people who carefully observe animals in their own
environment, disturbing them as little as possible; observer remains in
background
Step 2: Designing an Experiment
Variables – anything capable of assuming any of several values (very in
value)
Manipulate – setting values of an independent variable in an experiment
to see whether value of another variable is affected
Experimental Group – group of participants in an experiment, members
of which are exposed to particular value of independent variable, which
has been manipulated by researcher
Control Group – comparison group used in experiment, members of
which are exposed to naturally occurring or zero value of independent
variable
Variable – anything capable of assuming any of several values
Independent variable – variable that is manipulated in experiment as
means of determining cause-and-effect
Dependent variable – variable that is measured in experiment as means
of determining cause-and-effect relations
value of dependent variable depends on value of independent variable
independent and dependent variables are categories into which
various behaviours are classified
experiment is performed by manipulating value of independent variable
and observing whether change affects dependent variable
Nominal Fallacy – false belief that one has explained causes of
phenomenon by identifying and naming it; (explaining lazy behaviour by
attributing it to “laziness”)
Operational Definitions – translation of generalities into specific terms;
definition of a variable in terms of operations the researcher performs to
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