PSYC 2100 Lecture Notes - Flashlight, Group Cohesiveness, Private Investigator

47 views14 pages
4 Feb 2013
Department
Course
Professor

For unlimited access to Class Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

2/4/2013 6:43:00 AM
Group:
collection two or more people; interact; interdependent
there needs and goals cause them to rely on another
come together with common purpose
Types of groups:
Non-social groups:
limited interaction and interdependence
group of people waiting for bus
Social Group:
interact
interdependent:
sports teams, friends, family
Why do people join groups?
forming relationship with others fulfills a number of basic human needs
possible innate
evolutionary: essential to be in group
The composition:
2-6: most groups
if becomes to large; can not interact with all the members
homogeneity of members; similar attitudes, beliefs, and common oal
Social Norms:
all group members follow these rules
gym; wipe machine when done
Social Roles:
shared expectations how particular people supposed to behave in group
boss vs. employee
Prisoner vs. guard (zimbardo: to much absorbed)
Guards; abusive
Prisoners become withdrawn
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 14 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
hypothesis matched results; social roles shape behavior
this is further demonstrated by Abu Ghraib incidents
Gender Roles:
there are social expectations
now in conflict; women have to do occupational role and home role
expectations that come with roles; powerful effect on feelings and behavior
Group Cohesion:
better cohesion, more its members likely to stay in the group
How Groups Influence the Behavior of Individuals
how does presence effect us?
Presence
performing task with others who are doing the same thing
performing task in front of audience
Cockroach Study:
flashlight; timed how long for cockroach to run across
individual cockroaches performed better when they were being observed by
other cockroaches
Triplett (1898)
first to assess how others influence us
how come cyclists time faster when they ride other people?
Increased performance - > presence: due to dynamogenic factors
sight of other sets of competitive instinct and inspiration for greater effort
experiment: children performing reel turning task
results: children turned reel faster in pairs than when alone
conclusion: social facilitation: improvement in task performance occurs when
people work in the presence of other people
> this is only true for simple tasks; more complex tasks the opposite is true
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 14 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Zajonc’s theory of social facilitation:
presence of others increases physiological arousal
when this occurs; it is easier to do something simple (dominant response)
> effect is strongest when spread and quantity count more than quality
harder to do something complex (no dominant response) perform better
alone
Social Facilitation: tendency for people to do better on simples tasks; worse
on complex in the presence of other people
Why does social Facilitation occur?
increased arousal (more alert and vigilant); need to be alert when have
people of our own species surrounding
Evaluation (apprehensive, getting evaluated): concerned about how other
people are evaluating them ; judged; evaluation apprehension
Distract us from the task at hand
> when others are present; attention is divided between other people and
the task; attentional conflicts increases motivation; facilitates performance
on simple well learned task
Drive Theory: presence of others evokes a generalized drive state
characterized by increased readiness and arousal
Social Loafing;
tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks; better on complex tasks
when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance
cannot be evaluated
example: tug of war; not trying as hard
performance in a group; and we can not be evaluated; become more
relaxed.
Becoming relaxed improves performance on complex task
Ringlemann effect:
tendency for people to become les productive when they work with others
loss of efficiency increases as group size increases
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 14 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class