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Lecture 1

PSYC 2301 Lecture 1: PSYC 2301T Lecture 1

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PSYC 2301
Tarry Ahuja

PSYC 2301T Lecture 1 What is Health Psychology? Health Psychology is understanding psychological influence on How people stay healthy why people get ill and how they respond to illness. World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. WHO has 4 main functions 1. To give worldwide guidance in the field of health 2. To set global standards for health 3. To cooperate with governments in strengthening national health programs 4. To develop and transfer appropriate health technology, information and standards Health Psychologists focus on: • Health promotion and maintenance • Prevention and treatment of illness • Etiology and links of health, illness and dysfunction • Holistic (universal) approach to health • Improving the health care system and policy Mind-Body Relationship Early Times • Over time our views around mind and body in terms of health has changed. • Early cultures believed that mind and body were a unit • Disease arose when evil spirits entered • Employed trephination: holes drilled in the head so evil spirits could escape Greeks • Introduced the humoral theory of illness. • Our body is composed of 4 essential fluids; blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlegm • Disease arose when there was imbalance • Personality types were associated with dominant humoral variables • Aligns with mind-body unitary hypothesis • 4 main temperaments - phlegmatic: an unemotional and calm disposition (Phlegm) - choleric: bad-tempered or irritable - Sanguine: optimistic or positive (Blood) - Melancholic: sadness • constant flux between temperaments • today temperament= psychological disposition Middle Ages • period of supernatural and mysticism beliefs • disease was attributed to evil forces entering the body. Ritualistic torture was employed to rid the body of the evil • religion infiltrated medical science and knowledge • functions of the physician were absorbed by the priest • level of health was associated with degree of faith Renaissance • improvements in biotechnology • Microscopy (Leeuwenhoek): use of the microscope • Autopsy (Morgagni): examination of a dead body or organ • Led to the rejection of the humoral theory • Supported by cellular pathology • Initiated the mind-body dualism m
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