PSYC 2301 Lecture Notes - Elaboration Likelihood Model, Patient Education, Health Promotion

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Published on 22 Apr 2013
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January 10, 2012 Health Psychology: Class 2
Why do we care?
Leading behavioral and social risk factors:
– Smoking
– Diet
– Inactivity
-a lot of behaviors we engage in are associated to health
-we can look at who is at risk
*prevention
-help people live a quality life
Successful modification:
Reduce preventable deaths
-put less of a burden on health care systems, save $$
Delay time of death
-cut down on alcohol and develop cancer at 72 rather than 50, contribute to society better
Delay onset and effects of chronic disease
Reduce health care costs
Health Behaviors
• Behaviors undertaken or avoided to enhance or maintain health
– Health enhancing behaviours (eating regularly, going to bed early)
– Health compromising behaviours (contribute to illness)
Habit: firmly established and often performed automatically without awareness
-established early in life (by the time we are 11)
-period of adolescence, sometimes the habits can go off track, life can throw us off
-our parents instilled in us Eg. put on seatbelt, Eg. brushing your teeth
-habits can be good, but can also be hard to break which means that bad habits may stay
What is health promotion?
Disease prevention
-goal is to try and prevent people from becoming ill through educating people - encourage
healthy behaviors so that we can stop people from learning bad behaviors in life
Eg. tell people about anti-smoking techniques, and promote awareness groups
– Health education
– Health promotion
What is health promotion?
Includes:
Promoting behavior change
-encourage us to get flu shots so that we don’t pass the flu on to someone else
Patient education
Public awareness campaigns
Political activism
-Eg. MADD - influences peoples health
January 10, 2012 Health Psychology: Class 2
* promoting healthy behaviors and giving them the tools and techniques to adapt these
healthy behaviors
Who’s involved?
Individuals
-mom/dad
Medical practitioners
-doctor, dentist
Psychologists
Policy makers
-community/national level
Psychology and Health Promotion
Social psychology
Research Methodology
• Theories of attitude and behavior change
Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion:
-how much you listen to that info is related to how much you invested in the topic
-Eg. if a smoking add comes on TV and you do not smoke, one will not pay attention to
it
Fear appeal:
-scare people of the affects of smoking/drinking - this is what could happen if you do
this
-whether you listen depends on the source and if you are interested
-most ads to prevent smoking are fear appeals
-do not always work; push the negative effects out of your mind
-fear alone is not enough, but if there are specifics strategies to stop it and it is related
to you, and tell how YOU can change, then it may work
Primary Prevention
Measures designed to combat risk factors for disease and illness before disease and
illness occur.
We can try and find out how to prevent the diseases and illnesses
Goals
– Encourage/increase good health habits Eg. more regular sleep
– Decrease or eliminate bad health habits
Primary Prevention
Behavior change methods
– get people to reduce or eliminate bad health habits
-window of vulnerability: stop the habit before it becomes serious
• Keep people from developing bad habits
– e.g., programs that deter adolescents from smoking and drinking before they start
**stop illness before it happens**
January 10, 2012 Health Psychology: Class 2
Secondary Prevention
Helping individuals who are at high risk
• Same goals as primary prevention
• Targeting specific high-risk subsets of the population
– Example: Helping obese people lead healthy lifestyles to avoid development of Type II
diabetes
**targeting a specific population who are at risk and helping them**
Social Engineering
Modifying the environment so that’s is easy (or imperative) for people to engage in
healthful behaviours
-some health behaviors are taken out of our hands and we don’t have to do anything Eg. water
purification is done for us Eg. no smoking on the bus is helping us to quit
-social engineering: passive; takes the control out of your hands. The requirement to act at an
individual level to promote our health is taken out of our hands and it is in the hands of the
gov’t, etc.
What are some examples?......
– on campus?
– in the community?
Venues
Therapists office
-go to a therapist to help with stress
Health practitioners office
Family
Self-help groups
Schools
Worksite interventions
• Community-based interventions
Key Points
• Research methods in health psychology
– what are the strengths and limitations of each design?
• Why is behavior change important to study?
• What factors influence health behaviours and people’s ability to change?

Document Summary

Why do we care: leading behavioral and social risk factors: A lot of behaviors we engage in are associated to health. We can look at who is at risk. Successful modification: reduce preventable deaths, delay time of death, delay onset and effects of chronic disease, reduce health care costs. Put less of a burden on health care systems, save 8111 Cut down on alcohol and develop cancer at 72 rather than 50, contribute to society better. Health behaviors: behaviors undertaken or avoided to enhance or maintain health. Health enhancing behaviours (eating regularly, going to bed early) Health compromising behaviours (contribute to illness: habit: firmly established and often performed automatically without awareness. Established early in life (by the time we are 11) Period of adolescence, sometimes the habits can go off track, life can throw us off. Our parents instilled in us eg. put on seatbelt, eg. brushing your teeth.