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PSYC 2301 (154)
Lecture 4

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PSYC 2301
Tarry Ahuja

Health compromising behaviors Overview - Characteristics of health compromising behaviors - What is substance dependence - Alcoholism/smoking/eating disorders Health compromising behaviors - Also referred to as risk or problem behavior - Common health compromising behavior (HCB) characteristics: • Window of vulnerability in adolescence • Self-presentation  Depending on how you are presenting yourself, people will judge you upon your looks. Ex: suit = professional • Provides some pleasure  Ex: enjoy smoking b/c it gives you relief • Gradual development  Build a tolerance and then becomes an addictive behavior • Common predictive factors • Similar profile of substance abuser • Socio-economic drivers Substance dependence - Defined in the DSM-IV as: • When an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of the substance, substance dependence may be diagnosed • Compulsive and repetitive use may result in tolerance to the effect of the drug and withdrawal symptoms when use is reduced or stopped  Increase amount of substances and get anxiety when they are withdrawn - APA(2000) defines it as: • When user has repeatedly self-administered an agent resulting in tolerance, withdrawal, and compulsive behavior - Substance abuse can include: • Physical dependence • Tolerance • Addiction • Withdrawal Substance dependence- harms reduction - Harms reduction is described as: • “an approach that focuses on the risks and consequences of substance use rather than on the drug use itself”  Tell someone cigarettes will kill them = they feel attacked. Instead, tell them if they change their behavior, it can reduce chances of cancer - Sets more realistic goals - Implemented through community-based programs • Methadone clinics • Needle exchange programs Substance dependence- insite program - Insite program started in 2003 in Vancouver - Canada’s first safe-injection site - Offers disposable injection kit, sterile tools, medical support - Benefits of Insite Program: • Reduces rates of transfer of infection disease • Lowers long-term costs to the healthcare system • Improved access health care services, including primary care and addiction treatment • Brings stability to the community, safer environment Illicit drug use - Illicit drugs represent those that are illegal - Four main classes of illicit drugs include: • Opiates (ex: heroin) • Cocaine • Cannabis/THC • Amphetamine-type stimulants - Psychoactive prescription drugs are a growing problem (ex: opioids, oxycontin, stimulants) - Consequences of illicit drug use include: • Physical issues  Physiological damage  Infectious diseases • Mental health issues  Anxiety, rebound depression (with a high comes an equally bad low) • Social issues  Misjudgement, risky sexual behaviors Alcohol abuse - Alcoholism recognized as a disease byAMAin 1957 - Responsible for more than 8,000 deaths/year - Linked to health issues including: • High blood pressure • Liver damage • CVD • Fetal-alcohol syndrome - Alcoholic is physically addicted to alcohol • Display both withdrawal and tolerance, loss of control - Problem drinkers have social, psychological, and medical problems resulting from alcohol Alcohol abuse- origins/causal factors - Factors that influence the incidence: • Genetic factors/genetically linked • Men vs. women  Men drink more than women.Also more acceptable for a man to be drunk • Socio-economic status • Response to stress • Social cues  Western cultures have holidays that call for alcohol. Muslim countries, it is forbidden • Cultural cues Alcohol abuse- treatment - Factors that influence treatment include: • Alcoholics age, rates improve (“maturing”)  Older alcoholics have better chances of responding in treatment than if they started much younger • Socio-economic status • Access to care and social support - Commonly employed treatments include: • Alcoholic
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