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Lecture 2

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PSYC 2301
Tarry Ahuja

The systems of the body Overview - Discuss course assignment - Overview of systems of the body The nervous system - Comprised of a very complex system of nerve fibers - Organized into 2 main sections: • Central nervous system (CNS) • Peripheral nervous system (PNS) The nervous system- CNS - Consists of the brain and spinal cord • Makes it the most important nervous system - Brain is contained in the cranial cavity - Spinal cord is contained in the spinal cavity - Brain is protected by the skull - Spinal cord is protected by vertebrae - Brain injury The nervous system- PNS - Consists of the somatic and autonomic nervous system - The somatic nervous system: • Also known as voluntary • Connects brain to voluntary muscles • Provides sensory feedback about voluntary movement • Is less protected than the CNS - The autonomic nervous system: • Also known as involuntary • Connects brain to internal organs • Further divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic - The sympathetic division: • Responds to danger and stress • Physiological changes- heart rate, bp • Adrenaline (“fight or flight”) The nervous system- Fight or Flight - Acute stress response (general adaptation syndrome) The nervous system- PNS - The parasympathetic division • Controls organs at baseline • Agonistic to the sympathetic nervous system • Active when individual feels relaxed • Stimulates digestion (“rest and digest”) - The nervous system The nervous system The brain - The brain consists of 3 sections: • The hindbrain, midbrain, and the forebrain The brain- hindbrain - The medulla: mediates heart rate, blood pressure, and CO /O con2en2ration - The pons: link between hindbrain and midbrain, and helps control respiration - The cerebellum: coordinates voluntary muscle movement, balance/equilibrium. Muscle tone, and posture The brain- midbrain - The midbrain: • Relay of sensory and motor info between forebrain and hindbrain • Controls visual and auditory reflexes • Production of DA(dopamine) in substantia nigra The brain- forebrain - The forebrain has 2 main sections: diencephalon and telencephalon - The diencephalon contains the thalamus and the hypothalamus The brain- forebrain (diencephalon) - Functions of thalamus: • Relay sensation, spatial sense, and motor signals to the cerebral cortex • Regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness • Switchboard - Functions of hypothalamus: • Regulate parts of medulla that control cardiac function, blood pressure, respiration • Regulation of water balance, appetite, and sexual desire • Link to the endocrine system (controls moods, drive, emotions) via pituitary gland The brain- forebrain (telencephalon) - The telencephalon contains the left and right cerebral cortex - Functions of cerebral cortex: • Involved in higher order intelligence, memory, personality • Processing of sensory and motor information • Contains 4 lobes - Outer region represents the cortex (2-4mm) - Ramon Cajal- cell bodies and dendrites The brain The brain- neurotransmitters - Neurotransmitters (NTs): • Regulate both CNS and PNS function • Sympathetic nervous system secretes norepinephrine and epinephrine (catecholamines) • Can modulate physiology, alertness • Repeated activation linked to chronic disease Disorders of the nervous system - Approximately 1 in 3
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