Class Notes (837,346)
Canada (510,232)
Psychology (2,710)
PSYC 2301 (154)
Lecture 10

Lecture 10.docx

14 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 2301
Tarry Ahuja

Psychoneuroimmunology,AIDS, Cancer andArthritis and Challenges for the Future Overview - Understanding psychoneuroimmunology - AIDS and its consequences - Understanding cancer - Arthritis - Future factors for consideration Psychoneuroimmunology - Defined as: • The interaction among behavioral, neuroendocrine, and immunological processes of adaptation • The study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body The immune system - Surveillance system of the body - Implicated in: • Infection • Allergies • Cancer • Autoimmune disorders - Determines what is “self” and foreign The immune system- natural immunity - Natural immunity: • Defense against a variety of pathogens • Largest group of cells is granulocytes • This includes neutrophils and macrophages, which are phagocytes  Neutrophils and macrophages congregate at the site of injury or infection  Release toxic substances - Macrophages release cytokines which: • Lead to inflammation • Fever • Promote wound healing - Natural killer (CK) cells: • Recognize viral infections or cancer cells • Lyse cells by releasing toxic factors • Important in signaling potential malignancies • Limits early phases of viral infections The immune system- specific immunity - Specific immunity: • Slower process but more specific • Lymphocytes have very specific receptors for one antigen • Once activated they divide to create a proliferative response - Both types of immunity work together - Natural followed by specific The immune system - Humoral immunity is mediated by B lymphocytes: • Provide protection against bacteria • Neutralize toxins produced by bacteria • Prevent viral infections - Cell-mediated immunity: • Involves T lymphocytes from the thymus gland • Operates at the cellular level • Cytotoxic (T ) cells response to specific antigens C • Helper T (T )Hcells enhance functioning of T cClls, B cells and macrophages Immunocompetence - Immune function can be assessed by: • Studying distribution of immune cells in blood samples • Examining the functioning of immune cells - Blood examination counts numbers of: • T, B, and NK cells • Assesses the amount of circulating lymphokines or antibody level - Assessing the functioning of cells includes examining: • Activation (how fast they activate) • Proliferation (how fast they divide) • Transformation (how fast they adapt) • Cytotoxicity of cells (how well they kill viruses) - Common assessments include: lymphocyte toxicity, phagocytotic activity - Mitogenic stimulation technique - Antibody production to latent virus: • If body produces antibodies to inactive viruses, it is a sign the immune system is not working well • Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus - Immune response to vaccine is also an indicator • The body should produce enough antibody to the vaccine • Determines the degree of immune response to antigen - Immunocompetence vs. immunocompromise - Wound repair is also an indicator Stress and immune function - Short-term stressors: • Produce fight-or-flight response • Elicit immune response to potential injury or infection • Increase in NK cells, large granular lymphocytes (activates immune system) • Also leads to down regulation of specific immunity - Long-term stressors: • Causes both cellular and humoral down regulation • Stronger among elderly or those with other issues • Can impact other co-morbid issues Immune response Stress and immune function - Stress involving threat to self can increase proinflammatory cytokine activity - Anticipatory stress can compromise immune functioning • Decreased number of T celHs - Effects of stress on immune system can be delayed - Those under stress can show increased vulnerability to ID - Stress may aggravate diseased associated with inflammatory processes - Stress may increase negative emotions which compromises immune function - Depression is positively correlated with immunity - Social support found to increase NK cell activity (boosts immunity) - Optimism improves immune function - Self-efficacy over stressful events is associated with less immunocompromise - Relaxation (and massage) may mute stress and prevent immunocompromise AIDS - Acquired immune deficiency syndrome - Estimated to have begun in CentralAfrica (70s) - Spread quickly within countries around there - Factors that have contributed include: • High rates of extramarital sex • Low condom use • High rate of gonorrhea - Non-sterile techniques propagated the spread - First case reported in Canada in 1982 - By 2006 there were 20,000 cases and 60,000 with HIV in Canada - New HIV infections has globally declined 19% in the past decade AIDS- mechanism - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) • Attacks the helper T cells • Attacks macrophages of the immune system • Exchange of cell-containing bodily fluids - Time between HIV AIDS is variable - Lack of symptoms but still contagious - Grows rapidly and spreads over first few weeks - Early symptoms include: • Swollen glands • Mild-flu like symptoms - May be followed by asymptomatic period - Virus continues to THcells making pts vulnerable - Progressive symptoms include: • Chronic diarrhea • Wasting • Skeletal pain • Blindness - CNS impairment becomes apparent AIDS- therapy - Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) • Combination of antiretroviral medications • Must be taken religiously • Treatments may be complex and disruptive • Depression may also be a contributor to non-adherence - Ottawa based intervention program - SES and housing status can contribute to adherence AIDS- population - Initially two major risk groups included: • Homosexual men • Intravenous drug users - Currently, aboriginal and minority populations are increasingly at risk - Adolescents and young adults are the most at risk (represents 50% of all new cases) - IDU leads to higher rates of infection AIDS- psychosocial - Large group that are HIV+ but don’t yet have symptoms - Depression vs. positive changes in behavior - Disclosure is essential -
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2301

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.