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PSYC 2301 (154)
Lecture 10

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2301
Professor
Tarry Ahuja
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychoneuroimmunology,AIDS, Cancer andArthritis and Challenges for the Future Overview - Understanding psychoneuroimmunology - AIDS and its consequences - Understanding cancer - Arthritis - Future factors for consideration Psychoneuroimmunology - Defined as: • The interaction among behavioral, neuroendocrine, and immunological processes of adaptation • The study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body The immune system - Surveillance system of the body - Implicated in: • Infection • Allergies • Cancer • Autoimmune disorders - Determines what is “self” and foreign The immune system- natural immunity - Natural immunity: • Defense against a variety of pathogens • Largest group of cells is granulocytes • This includes neutrophils and macrophages, which are phagocytes  Neutrophils and macrophages congregate at the site of injury or infection  Release toxic substances - Macrophages release cytokines which: • Lead to inflammation • Fever • Promote wound healing - Natural killer (CK) cells: • Recognize viral infections or cancer cells • Lyse cells by releasing toxic factors • Important in signaling potential malignancies • Limits early phases of viral infections The immune system- specific immunity - Specific immunity: • Slower process but more specific • Lymphocytes have very specific receptors for one antigen • Once activated they divide to create a proliferative response - Both types of immunity work together - Natural followed by specific The immune system - Humoral immunity is mediated by B lymphocytes: • Provide protection against bacteria • Neutralize toxins produced by bacteria • Prevent viral infections - Cell-mediated immunity: • Involves T lymphocytes from the thymus gland • Operates at the cellular level • Cytotoxic (T ) cells response to specific antigens C • Helper T (T )Hcells enhance functioning of T cClls, B cells and macrophages Immunocompetence - Immune function can be assessed by: • Studying distribution of immune cells in blood samples • Examining the functioning of immune cells - Blood examination counts numbers of: • T, B, and NK cells • Assesses the amount of circulating lymphokines or antibody level - Assessing the functioning of cells includes examining: • Activation (how fast they activate) • Proliferation (how fast they divide) • Transformation (how fast they adapt) • Cytotoxicity of cells (how well they kill viruses) - Common assessments include: lymphocyte toxicity, phagocytotic activity - Mitogenic stimulation technique - Antibody production to latent virus: • If body produces antibodies to inactive viruses, it is a sign the immune system is not working well • Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus - Immune response to vaccine is also an indicator • The body should produce enough antibody to the vaccine • Determines the degree of immune response to antigen - Immunocompetence vs. immunocompromise - Wound repair is also an indicator Stress and immune function - Short-term stressors: • Produce fight-or-flight response • Elicit immune response to potential injury or infection • Increase in NK cells, large granular lymphocytes (activates immune system) • Also leads to down regulation of specific immunity - Long-term stressors: • Causes both cellular and humoral down regulation • Stronger among elderly or those with other issues • Can impact other co-morbid issues Immune response Stress and immune function - Stress involving threat to self can increase proinflammatory cytokine activity - Anticipatory stress can compromise immune functioning • Decreased number of T celHs - Effects of stress on immune system can be delayed - Those under stress can show increased vulnerability to ID - Stress may aggravate diseased associated with inflammatory processes - Stress may increase negative emotions which compromises immune function - Depression is positively correlated with immunity - Social support found to increase NK cell activity (boosts immunity) - Optimism improves immune function - Self-efficacy over stressful events is associated with less immunocompromise - Relaxation (and massage) may mute stress and prevent immunocompromise AIDS - Acquired immune deficiency syndrome - Estimated to have begun in CentralAfrica (70s) - Spread quickly within countries around there - Factors that have contributed include: • High rates of extramarital sex • Low condom use • High rate of gonorrhea - Non-sterile techniques propagated the spread - First case reported in Canada in 1982 - By 2006 there were 20,000 cases and 60,000 with HIV in Canada - New HIV infections has globally declined 19% in the past decade AIDS- mechanism - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) • Attacks the helper T cells • Attacks macrophages of the immune system • Exchange of cell-containing bodily fluids - Time between HIV AIDS is variable - Lack of symptoms but still contagious - Grows rapidly and spreads over first few weeks - Early symptoms include: • Swollen glands • Mild-flu like symptoms - May be followed by asymptomatic period - Virus continues to THcells making pts vulnerable - Progressive symptoms include: • Chronic diarrhea • Wasting • Skeletal pain • Blindness - CNS impairment becomes apparent AIDS- therapy - Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) • Combination of antiretroviral medications • Must be taken religiously • Treatments may be complex and disruptive • Depression may also be a contributor to non-adherence - Ottawa based intervention program - SES and housing status can contribute to adherence AIDS- population - Initially two major risk groups included: • Homosexual men • Intravenous drug users - Currently, aboriginal and minority populations are increasingly at risk - Adolescents and young adults are the most at risk (represents 50% of all new cases) - IDU leads to higher rates of infection AIDS- psychosocial - Large group that are HIV+ but don’t yet have symptoms - Depression vs. positive changes in behavior - Disclosure is essential -
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