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Lecture 2

PSYC 2400E - Lecture 2 - Jan. 10, 2013.docx

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Carleton University
PSYC 2400
Julie Dempsey

Thursday, January 10, 2013 PSYC 2400 - Winter 2013 Lecture 2 Goals for Today’s Class - What is forensic psychology? - History of experimental and clinical psychology - Role of psychological experts in court - Theories of criminal behaviour What do you think of when you hear “forensic” psychology? What is Forensic Psychology? - Field of psychology that deals with all aspects of human behaviour as it relates to the law or legal system - From Latin word “forensis” o Meaning “of the forum” o Where the law courts of ancient Rome were held - More narrow view on forensic psychology is clinical forensic Clinical Forensic Psychologist - Concerned with mental health issues and the legal system - Both research and treatment - Focus on: o Assessment o Treatment - Must be licensed (and have a Ph.D) - Work in schools, mental hospitals, prisons - Most of the research would be more of an evaluation (i.e., the effectiveness of a treatment program) Experimental Psychologist - Study human behaviour as it relates to the law and/or legal system - Ph.D. level graduate training Legitimate Field - Forensic psychology textbooks - Scientific journals - Professional associations o American Psychology-Law Association (1968) o Criminal Justice Division – CPA (1985) - University programs o 1974 – first joint Law/Psychology Forensic Psychology Comes of Age Phenomenal growth since 2000’s - 1970-1980 PsycInfo o 837 hits for Forensic Psychology - 1980-1990 PsychInfo o 3181 hits for Forensic Psychology - 1990-2000 PsychInfo o 3968 hits for Forensic Psychology - 2000-2010 PsychInfo o 17,040 hits for Forensic Psychology Historical Highlights: Key Figures in Research James Cattell, 1895 - First experiments in “psychology of testimony” (would be eyewitness nowadays) - Asked students about things they have witnessed in their everyday life - Asked to see how well they could remember - How confident are you? - He found people did a bad job of remembering - Confidence had nothing to do with accuracy What was the weather like last Tuesday? A. Cloudy B. Sunny C. Rainy D. Cloudy with drizzle E. Can’t remember How confident are you? A. Not at all B. Somewhat C. I am right In which direction do seeds of an apple point? A. Narrow end up B. Narrow end down How confident are you? A. Not at all B. Somewhat C. I am right Alfred Binet, 1900 - French psychologist - Most well-known for work with intelligence testing - Suggestibility in children - How well can children remember? - He would show children a collection of objects and then asked the children about the objects - He asked them to just recall anything they can remember (free recall) or he would ask mildly or highly leading questions (i.e., “how was the button attached to the board?”, or “what color was the thread that attached the button to the board?”) - Concluded that children would have logical answers or imaginary answers William Stern, 1901 - Research on testimony - “reality experiment” - He had two people come into a class, get into an argument and then one drew out a revolver - He found that emotional arousal had an effect on memory (people forgot things after the revolver was shown) - E
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