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Lecture 5

PSYC 2400E - Lecture 5 - Jan. 22, 2013.docx

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Carleton University
PSYC 2400
Julie Dempsey

Tuesday, January 22, 2013 PSYC 2400 - Winter 2013 Lecture 5 What factors are related to arrest? - More serious offence - Strong evidence - Victim requests arrest - Victim and offender are strangers (rare, usually victims and offenders know each other) - Suspect resistant or disrespectful to officer - Location of incident (if it’s a more public place, they are more apt to arrest the suspect) - Ethnicity of offender Ethnicity and Use-of-Force (Correll et al., 2007) - Participants: Police vs. Community members - Measured on speed and accuracy with shoot/don’t shoot decisions - Black and White targets holding wither threatening (gun) vs. non-threatening (cell phone) - Black targets are 5 times more likely to die at the hand of a police officer Shooting Behaviour Results - The community sample set a lower criterion (more “trigger happy”) vs. the police - Racial bias seen in both samples o More likely to shoot “unarmed Black man” vs “unarmed White man” o Less likely to shoot “armed White man” vs. “armed Black man” - Police are faster at making an accurate decision - Police can tell if a target is armed faster Police Stress - Policing involved high levels of stress for officers and their families - What is stressful varies by officer o So do consequences of stress Causes of Police Stress Occupational Organizational Criminal Justice Public Stressors Stressors Stressors Stressors Irregular work Lack of career Ineffective criminal Distorted press schedule development justice system accounts Exposure to Excessive Unfavourable court Ineffective human suffering paperwork decisions referral agency Consequences of Police Stress Physical Health Psychological/Personal Job Performance Problems Problems Problems Stomach ulcers Depression Low morale Weight gain Drug & alcohol abuse Absenteeism Diabetes Suicide Citizen complaints (if they act more harsh to citizens) High blood pressure PTSD Reduced productivity Preventing and Managing Police Stress - A variety of stress prevention and management strategies now exist within policing: o Informal support networks o Physical fitness programs o Professional counseling o Family assistance programs o Critical incident stress debriefings Critical Incident Stress Debriefing - Created to aid emergency workers who are secondarily exposed to trauma, o Most commonly used method of debriefing o Group sessions very soon after incident o Associated with decrease in negative outcomes o Should be voluntary Adaptive and Maladaptive Coping - Maladaptive strategies (e.g., reliance on alcohol) associated with negative health outcomes in police officers - Promising strategy = teaching police officers about adaptive coping strategies o E.g., communications skills, cognitive-based therapies - Training police officers to use adaptive coping strategies can result in general heath improvements and enhanced work performance (McCraty et al., 1999) Chapter 3 – Police Interrogations & False Confessions Today’s Objectives - Police Interrogations o Purpose o Reid model o Problems with Reid model - False Confessions o Types of false confessions o Why might a person falsely confess? Police Interrogation - Definition: o A process whereby the police interview a suspect for the purpose of gathering evidence and obtaining a confession Interrogation Techniques - Past = mid-twentieth century involved overt physical coercion (the person confesses to get away from the physical abuse) - Physical coercion was admissible in court (they still accepted a confession even if it was beaten out of the suspect) o Brown v. Mississippi, 1936 - Presen
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