PSYC 2400 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Martin Tankleff, Soft Sell, Debriefing

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Published on 29 Jan 2013
Tuesday, January 22, 2013
PSYC 2400 - Winter 2013
Lecture 5
What factors are related to arrest?
- More serious offence
- Strong evidence
- Victim requests arrest
- Victim and offender are strangers (rare, usually victims and offenders know each other)
- Suspect resistant or disrespectful to officer
- Location of incident (if it’s a more public place, they are more apt to arrest the suspect)
- Ethnicity of offender
Ethnicity and Use-of-Force (Correll et al., 2007)
- Participants: Police vs. Community members
- Measured on speed and accuracy with shoot/don’t shoot decisions
- Black and White targets holding wither threatening (gun) vs. non-threatening (cell phone)
- Black targets are 5 times more likely to die at the hand of a police officer
Shooting Behaviour Results
- The community sample set a lower criterion (more “trigger happy”) vs. the police
- Racial bias seen in both samples
o More likely to shoot “unarmed Black man” vs “unarmed White man”
o Less likely to shoot “armed White man” vs. “armed Black man”
- Police are faster at making an accurate decision
- Police can tell if a target is armed faster
Police Stress
- Policing involved high levels of stress for officers and their families
- What is stressful varies by officer
o So do consequences of stress
Causes of Police Stress
Criminal Justice
Public Stressors
Irregular work
Lack of career
Ineffective criminal
justice system
Distorted press
Exposure to
human suffering
Unfavourable court
referral agency
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Consequences of Police Stress
Physical Health
Job Performance Problems
Stomach ulcers
Low morale
Weight gain
Drug & alcohol abuse
Citizen complaints (if they
act more harsh to citizens)
High blood pressure
Reduced productivity
Preventing and Managing Police Stress
- A variety of stress prevention and management strategies now exist within policing:
o Informal support networks
o Physical fitness programs
o Professional counseling
o Family assistance programs
o Critical incident stress debriefings
Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
- Created to aid emergency workers who are secondarily exposed to trauma,
o Most commonly used method of debriefing
o Group sessions very soon after incident
o Associated with decrease in negative outcomes
o Should be voluntary
Adaptive and Maladaptive Coping
- Maladaptive strategies (e.g., reliance on alcohol) associated with negative health outcomes in police
- Promising strategy = teaching police officers about adaptive coping strategies
o E.g., communications skills, cognitive-based therapies
- Training police officers to use adaptive coping strategies can result in general heath improvements and
enhanced work performance (McCraty et al., 1999)
Chapter 3 Police Interrogations & False Confessions
Today’s Objectives
- Police Interrogations
o Purpose
o Reid model
o Problems with Reid model
- False Confessions
o Types of false confessions
o Why might a person falsely confess?
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