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Lecture 7

PSYC 2400E - Lecture 7 - Jan. 29, 2013.docx

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PSYC 2400
Julie Dempsey

Tuesday, January 29, 2013 PSYC 2400 - Winter 2013 Lecture 7 Deception – Guest Lecture: Ian Broom, PhD Introduction  Intentional – create false belief in receiver  People lie (Hancock et al., 2004a) • 14% e-mails • 21% instant message • 27% of face-to-face • 37% of phone calls  Twice a day on average (DePaulo et al., 1996)  People are better at knowing when people are being truthful than when they are being deceptive • Truth Bias  Crime leads to high-stakes lying • Interrogation • Sentencing; parole hearings (remorse)  When there are high stakes, people lie better  Nature of deception • Cognitive • Have to make up story • Emotional • Heart rate increases, sweating, shaking How good are people at detecting deception?  Accumulated research literature suggests that people are not good at detecting deception.  The average person is accurate roughly 54% of the time when 50% would be expected by chance. Behavioural Indicators  Deception can initiate a stress reaction  Activates the sympathetic nervous system  Cognitive element kicks in – aware of arousal  Control all perceived behavioural cues • Verbal • Posture • Smiling  Microexpressions more difficult to control (monitor) • Time-reduced remnants of interrupted or inhibited facial muscular movements  Rigidity can emerge (e.g., Twyman, Elkins, Burgoon, 2011)  Honest – comfortable, open, and forward leaning posture  Deceptive – rigid, frozen, defensive posture  Conscious control  Can use movements to conceal other channels – which can give people away  Typical deceiver posture defensive  Leakage: Internal affective state of deceiver  Deception cues: Cues suggesting individual is trying to deceive you (e.g., finger tapping).  Liars and truth tellers should differ due to elevated arousal, cognitive load, and behavioural control.  Multi-tasking is taxing Non-Linguistic Cues • No universal • Look for mis-matches between content / messages and behaviour • Non-linguistic verbal behaviour • Pitch • Amplitude • Rate of articulation • Speech hesitations • Response brevity • Related to individual’s mental processing status Voice Stress • There’s an APP for that! • There are no independent research studies that support the use of VSA (NRC, 2003) Motivational Cues • Honest (and innocent) suspect, when questioned: • tends to be helpful • expects exoneration • displays resentment towards the guilty party • appears both spontaneous and sincere • A deceptive (and guilty) suspect: • provides less helpful information • shows inappropriate concern about being a suspect • lacks response spontaneity and sincerity • uses both guarded and clearly edited verbal responses Other Factors • Self-monitoring • People are good at controlling themselves • Rehearsal • Good to rehearse your lie, but if you rehearse too much it’ll be obvious that you’re lying • Motivation • Training Polygraph William Moulton Marsten (May 9, 1893 – May 2, 1947) – created first polygraph and was also the created of Wonder Woman  Uses o Employee Screening : “…we have seen no indication of a clear and stable agreement on criteria for judging answers to security screening polygraph questions in any agency using them.”(NRC,2003) o Investigative Support: “The general quality of the evidence for judging polygraph validity is relatively low.” • seeks the complete abolishment of polygraph "testing" from the American workplace. Now that the National Academy of Sciences has conducted an exhaustive study and found polygraph screening to be invalid, and even dangerous to national security, Congress should extend the protections of the 1988 Employee Polygraph Protection Act to all Americans. • The researcher who developed the U.S. Government's polygraph Test for Espionage and Sabotage "thought the whole security screening program should be shut down?" • The National Academy of Sciences concluded that "[polygraph testing's] accuracy in distinguishing actual or potential security violators from innocent test takers is insufficient to justify reliance on its use in employee security screening in federal agencies?" • ...spies are trained to pass the tests; polygraphs create a false sense of security; polygraphs drain valuable resources from other effective and sound security measures; and polygraph tests demoralize the staff, possibly jeopardizing the safety of information in such vital issues as nuclear technology.... • Spies Ignatz Theodor Griebl, Karel Frantisek Koecher, Jiri Pasovsky, Larry Wu-tai Chin, Aldrich Hazen Ames, Ana Belen Mon
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