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PSYC 2400E - Lecture 22 - April 2, 2013.docx

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PSYC 2400
Julie Dempsey

Tuesday, April 2, 2013 PSYC 2400 - Winter 2013 Lecture 22 So Why Do We Still Punish? • People believe in the effect of punishment • Politicians think that getting tough on crime is what the public wants • Rehabilitation is seen as soft and ineffective • It takes time and energy to evaluate programs, find they are not working, and initiate new programs • Eye for an eye mentality Principles of Effective Correctional Treatment • If not punishment, then what… • Psychologists have recently proposed ways of improving the effectiveness of correctional intervention (Andrews et al., 1990) • The following principles appear to be among those that are most important: – Risk principle – Need principle – Responsivity principle Risk Principle • Consists of two components: – Risk of reoffending can be predicted – Higher risk offenders should be provided with more intense (and extensive) interventions • Recidivism rates will actually increase if we target low risk offenders – Low-risk offenders learn from the high risk offenders if they are mixed in a treatment program • Why? Need Principle • Criminogenic needs must be targeted in order to reduce recidivism • These needs represent dynamic risk factors that, when changed, will effect the likelihood of re- offending • Non-criminogenic needs are also dynamic and changeable but are unrelated (or at least weakly associated) with recidivism Examples of Criminogenic Needs 1) Changing antisocial attitudes 2) Changing antisocial feelings 3) Reducing antisocial peer associations 4) Promoting identification with prosocial role models 5) Promoting familial affection/communication 6) Promoting familial monitoring and supervision 7) Increasing self-control, self-management, and problem- solving 8) Substance abuse 9) Academic and vocational deficits 10) Recognition of risky situations Examples of Non-Criminogenic Needs 1) Increasing self-esteem (without reductions in antisocial thinking, feeling, and peers) 2) Focusing on vague emotional/personal problems 3) Increasing cohesiveness of antisocial peer groups 4) Neighborhood-wide improvements without touching the needs of higher risk individuals 5) Increasing conventional ambition (work/school) without concrete assistance to achieve them 6) Fear of official punishment (i.e. “Scared Straight”) 7) Physical training programs Responsivity Principle (need to know it’s separated into general and specific) • General Responsivity: – delivered in a style and mode that is consistent with the ability and learning style of the offender • Generally it is assumed that a cognitive-behavioural approach to treatment will be most effective • Specific Responsivity: – intervention should be tailored to specific characteristics of the offender in terms of their motivation to change, personality, and demographic characteristics Conclusion of ECT  intervention programs that take into account these principles are more effective at reducing rates of recidivism Evidence Evidence Take home message • Human service must be provided not punishment based sanctions • Higher risk clients must be targeted • Criminogenic needs must be included within the treatment targets (the more the better) • Adherence to general and specific Responsivity principles is advised • Increased adherence to principles of ECT(effective correctional treatment) maximize reductions in reoffending Sexual Offenders Today you will learn… • Rates of sexual offending • Types of sexual offenders • Treatment of sexual offenders Definition of Sexual Assault • Any nonconsensual sexual act by either a male or female person to either a male or female person, regardless of the relationship between the people involved • Three levels: – Simple sexual assault • Max sentence is 10 years – Sexual assault with a weapon or causing bodily harm • Max sentence is 14 years, min sentence 4 years – Aggravated sexual assault • Serious injuries/near death • Max sentence is life imprisonment Extent of Sexual Offending in Canada • 20,992 sexual assaults in 2008 – 98% were level 1 – Declining since 1993 • Problems with reporting? – Inaccurate official estimates because majority of victims do not report crime – Victimization surveys indicate high rates of victimization Classification Sexual Offenders • Voyeurs – Obtains sexual gratification by observing unsuspecting people undressing or engaging in
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