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PSYC 2400 (274)
Adelle Forth (114)
Lecture 5

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PSYC 2400
Adelle Forth

Lecture 5: You Are Guilty So Confess-(Ch.3) Tuesday, January 18, 2011 - Natalie Jones covered part of Ch. 3—criminal and geographic profiling - We’re going to cover police stress (ch.2) and interrogations (ch.3) - False/wrongful convictions on Thursday—two wrongfully convicted people coming to speak on Saturday - Alain Olivier wrongfully convicted of drug trafficking—spent 8 years in Thailand (prison) - Jamie Nelson doesn’t fit in regular group of wrongfully convicted people— convicted for crime that never occurred—accused of sexual assault, police believed girl’s story, he was sentenced to 3 and a half years o Refused treatment—didn’t feel he was a sex offender o From Ottawa - Quiz 1 will be released next Monday—covers Ch.1-3 (everything up to Thursday’s lecture) - Ethnicity and Use-of-Force o Youth crime, domestic violence, mentally disordered and use-of-force: lots of police discretion o Correll interested in issue with African Americans and police use-of-force (very high-profile shootings of unarmed black men—police “thought” the individuals had guns) o Police and community, members’ use of lethal force o Virtual game—brought community members in, they would suddenly see someone on the screen (see gun/something non-threatening like a wallet/cell phone) o Varied the location (intercity, urban mall, etc.), whether individual was African American or white, and what he was holding o Have to hit button (shoot/don’t shoot) as quickly as possible o (Job was to shoot if he had a gun) o Studied reaction time and error rate o Results:  Community members were more likely to shoot (lower threshold)  Police training inhibited likelihood of shooting  But BOTH had a racial bias—both were more likely to shoot African American holding cell phone, less likely to shoot white guy holding a gun  Racial bias in police and community o This was with Denver police, community samples from Denver o He later went national—found that there was less bias in national police force - Police stress o Huge amount of stress involved o Police officers always ranked in top five most stressful occupations (risk)  Others would be: firefighters (risk), emergency room surgeons (work environment), air traffic controllers, miners (work environment)  Recently, added idea that areas with high degree of competition (real estate agent, sales, CEOs) have high amounts of stress  Taxi drivers recently added—work hours, abuse, dangers with people you pick up o Organizational  Paperwork o Occupational  This is why they’re seen as highly stressed • Shift-work • Exposed to horrific incidents (car accidents, mangled bodies, etc.) • Having to tell people that child has been killed, etc. • Negative interactions—criminals aggressive towards police o Criminal Justice  Ex. You arrest someone, prosecution decides to stay the charges, person is released. Arrest again, again don’t go to court.  Ex. Or you arrest person for serious offence and they get short prison times  Stress about how effective you’re being with your job o Public  Issue with media—tends to profile negative incidents that occur (Stacie Bons case)—Ottawa Police felt leader was not supporting them—public distrust, aggression, etc. - Taylor and Bennell did survey of Ontario police o Asked police officers to rate amount of stress they’ve experienced in last 6 months o 2 self-report scales, 20 items each (organizational and occupational stressors) o Rated on 1-7 point scale o Results  These were highest ratings for the police:  Differential rules for certain officers (favoritism)  Fatigue (shift-work, long hours)  Prove one’s self (to senior management, always on edge)  Inconsistent leadership (chiefs)  Court system (not effective in dealing—stressful going to court to testify—have to have vast knowledge that they’ll be grilled on)  Red tape (excessive regulation) o Organizational stressors were more stressful than occupational  Occupational (seeking horrible crime scene, dealing with criminals, etc.)—actually related to the job description  Organizational—dealing with chief, etc. - Ranking Police Stress by Violanti and Aron o Done in the States o Rank in order from 1-100 the most stressful events o Differs from Ontario study (last six months, more daily stressors)—this asks for most stressful thing that’s ever happened o 60 questions o Results  Physical attack  Battered child  High-speed chase  Shift work  Use of force  Inadequate departmental support o But the top two:  1) Killing someone in line of duty  2) Fellow officer’s murder o These are OCCUPATIONAL stressors—most stressors, but don’t happen that often o Organizational stressors happen every day - How to cope with stress o Talking to others o Training—know what to do, what to expect in stressful situations o Taking your emotions out of it, being detached - Burke, 1993—Police and Stress: coping methods o Huge study- 823 officers o Link stress level with other things  Coffee consumption (increases with level of stress)  Alcohol consumption  Use of medications (sleep medications, antianxiety)  Withdrawal (from social activities, family)  Lower job satisfaction  Greater intention to quit o All of these can lead to burn out—high rate among officers—related to quitting o We’re putting a lot of resources into training officers, they experience lots of stress and consequences of stress, want to quit o Burke asked how to deal with the stress  Only thing that made it most effective was EXERCISE  Individuals with regular exercise routine had fewer symptoms of stress  Something that police forces could easily implement - Ch.3—Police interrogations - Interrogation: gain evidence (find knife thrown away, stolen property, etc.), but PRIMARY GOAL IS TO OBTAIN CONFESSION - Most individuals who commit crimes do not voluntarily confess - Up until recently, it was deemed okay for police to use physical methods to obtain a confession o Beating (with rubber hose/others), as long as it doesn’t leave a mark o Deprived of food and water o Admissible in court, as long as you say it was voluntary - Brown v. Mississippi case—white farmer Raymond Stewart murdered, three black suspects o Beaten, whipped o One of them was strung up by a tree, threatened to hang him o After this, they confessed to the murder o All sentenced to death o However, they appealed the conviction, at the appeals court, their confessions were deemed inadmissible because they were obtained from physical coercion o Police officers told not to use physical violence—could use bright lights, deprive of sleep, use psychological techniques - Earnest Miranda—very famous case o Arrested for rape and kidnapping o Interrogated for two hours, confessed o Then claimed that he was not warned by the police that he didn’t have to say anything to them—was not warned about his rights o His confession was not entered into court—went to trial without the confession o Got convicted anyway, released in 1974 o *Miranda rights come from this case—police need to warn you  1) what you’re being arrested for  2) that you have the right to remain silent (anything you say or do can be used against you in a court of law)  3) you have a right to an attorney—if you don’t have money for an attorney, one will be appointed to you o We have a Charter of Rights and Freedoms with those same rights  1) What you’re being arrested for  2) Right to remain silent  3) Right to an attorney - Interrogation room o Manual for setting up the room o Isolated from other rooms as much as possible o Small o Have room for interrogator and second person o Observation mirror o Chair for suspect should be hard (oriented so you start slipping off?) o Interrogator and detective get more comfortable chairs o **Goal is to increase the discomfort of the individual  Part of the Reed technique of NA  Increase discomfort- more upsetting for person to be in that room, they overcome their anxiety about confessing  They just want to get out  More anxious to be in the room than confessing - Interrogation techniques o Soft sell tactics that provide a sense of false secure (minimize seriousness of the crime, blame victim, etc.)—minimization o Scare tactics that attempt to intimidate suspects (we’re going to talk to the Crown if you don’t confess, you’re going to get a 25 year sentence, we
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