Class Notes (811,176)
Canada (494,539)
Psychology (2,648)
PSYC 2400 (267)
Adelle Forth (109)
Lecture 6

Lecture 6.doc

9 Pages
Unlock Document

Carleton University
PSYC 2400
Adelle Forth

Lecture 6: False Confessions Thursday, January 20, 2011 - WebCT- tips on how to do well on the assignment - Should be able to access assignment now - Article summary page—download 5 different files o Instruction sheet o 4 articles (pick one to summarize) - Criminal profiling, psychopathy, eyewitness recall, jury decision making - Each is about 15-18 pages - Submit paper online using WebCT nd - 2 page of instruction sheet- instructions on how to upload paper - 2 parts o First part: summary (vast majority)  Extract the most important components, compile into short paper of your own  Major findings, how they reached those findings (how study was conducted)  Most important information to take away from it o Second part: compare and contrast (using textbook and article)—a couple of paragraphs at the end, to conclude  Each article is discussed in book  See what book says about why article is important  Related research mentioned in book  Are the findings of your paper in line with related research, in contrast, do we need to be cautious about how study was conducted/results they found? - Assignment sheet o Due date: March 4, noon o 5 mark penalty per day o (marked out of 30 points—can only be up to 6 days late, otherwise assignment is missed) o Worth 10% of final mark o Put thought into it, in-depth discussion of article (avoid superficial repeat of paper) o Different sections: st  1 main section: general requirements • 3-5 pages in length • Standard font size • Double-spaced • Clear and concise, narrative form • Can use headings to organize • Headings (consider incorporating those) o Intro, Method, Results, etc. • Not required to have formal formatting, but just be neat and organized • Select some method so that you’re not plagiarizing • Consistent method (ex. APA) • Should not need to quote  2 : specific directions • Suggestions for things you might want to look for and include in paper • Should be able to find these points in article—some may not be stated as explicitly (introduction- identify research question—some articles may describe the purpose of the study and infer what the question is) • Statistical analyses—some may have multiple analyses. Don’t panic about understanding them, just talk about it in a more general sense. • Compare and contrast—articles discussed in textbook, book may comment on a few of the key points but won’t necessarily be sufficient. Need independent thought, additional discussion. • Proofread paper, edit. Marks for spelling, grammar, sentence structure. (Read paper aloud to check for flow of paper.) o Some are one large study, others include mini studies. If you pick one with multiple components, still have to cover everything. - left-hand picture—Birmingham Six (1974) o IRA bombed two pubs in England o 21 killed, 164 injured o On the way to Belfast for funeral (fellow IRA member) o Stopped at train station, all arrested o Beaten at police station (bruising on face, severe trauma to stomach area) o 4 of them signed confession saying that they were the bombers o All convicted and sentenced to life in prison (1975) o 1990: new evidence showing that the police had fabricated evidence against the six (residue on hands), some of them admitted they were a little rough with suspects o Suspects exonerated and released o *Problem with police procedures - Right-hand picture—West Memphis Three o More recent o Three 8-year-old boys (Arkinsaw) abducted, taken to ravine, beaten, mutilated, sexually assaulted, left in drainage ditch o 3 suspects: 17, 18, 18 years old o Middle guy- Damien Echos- involved in Satanism, ritual, dressed in black, long hair in ponytail o He was different—police thought maybe he was suspect just because he was weird. o 17-year-old—Jessie MissKelly—borderline low IQ (72)- heard about the case, that there was reward- was working as a roofer- confessed and said the other two guys were involved- gets everything wrong in statement  Said they tied up boys with belts (it was actually shoelaces)  Always said “umm” at beginning—police transcript changed it to a direct “yes” o Difficult to know if they’re innocent or guilty—false confession o Jessie retracted the confession o They’re still serving time o No DNA connected to them—all based on retracted confession by this individual, Damien got the death penalty (death row for 17 years), other two in maximum-security institutions - Tomorrow at noon, first bonus assignment is due - Quiz 1 o Monday at noon released, due Friday at noon o Study before—read Ch.1-3 o Go over material (including today) o Get the answers Friday at noon - Confessions o With Birmingham Six and West Memphis Three: no physical evidence o No eyewitness, DNA, etc. o Very rare in Canada that we would convict solely on basis of confession, we look for corroborating evidence o There have been cases in UK and US in which people were convicted just based on a confession o Voluntary confessions—with MissKelly, for example, just decided to confess on his own. But got the details wrong—police just deduced he got the details off because he was cognitively slow.  Supposedly, a lot of the mutilation that happened to boys was nothing to do with the murder—it was from rats in the ditch o Cassin says this is very potent weapon—not many people will question you if you say you did it - Factors of false confessions o Environment of interrogation room o *Lengthy and repeated interrogations  18 hours—Paul Ingram case- interrogated 20 times) o *Coercion, threats (beat, deport you, interrogate girlfriend, etc.) o Belief of reward o *Promise to get released from interrogation (young boys/low IQ) o *Young age  Trescott case- 14 years old, charged with murder, more vulnerable to authority, more suggestible o Protect the person who actually committed the crime (brother/family/gang members) o Fame o Mental illness—delusional o *Mental state—fatigued, withdrawing from drugs, etc. o *Limited cognitive ability (low IQ) o *Cultural background o *Use of false evidence (DNA, witnesses, co-accused person “ratted out” on you) o *Use of hypnosis - We get 55% confession rates in Canada - Cross-cultural differences: o Confession rate is 90% in Japan  Better at finding suspects, what happens in room? - We don’t know how common false confessions are o Study of criminals in Iceland—12% of incarcerated criminals admit that they’ve falsely confessed to another crime in the past - Birmingham Six o Johnson- research in suggestibility and compliance, suggestibility scale in book o Six people convicted- 12 years into sentence, he was hired to give them his compliance scale (20 item, true-false scale)—how much do you comply to authority? o He also used a suggestibility measure- read a story about a crime, ask them to report information, give misleading information, see how much they agree with it, give 15-minute filler task, ask them to repeat story (see whether they incorporated misleading information the second time) o He found that the two who never confessed resisted o Other four—the men who signed the false confession o *Compliance to authority and suggestibility—lead to false confessions - Michael Crow Case o He was at home Jan. 21, 1998 (he was 14-years-old) o Sister was found stabbed to death in the morning o Didn’t see any forced entry—strange that he didn’t hear anything when she was being attacked o Police focused on him as prime suspect o For 27 hours over 3 days—he was interrogated o He was young, given false evidence, all the doors were locked so it had to be someone in the house—police tried to convince him that he had split personality o Admitted- charged with her murder- it was false o Threatened to be punished in adult prison if he doesn’t confess, or he would be helped (not criminally charged)-- lie  Highly coercive o Also sustained attack on suspect’s memory  Accusing h
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2400

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.