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Adelle Forth (106)
Lecture 9

Lecture 9

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Carleton University
PSYC 2400
Adelle Forth

Lecture 9: Detecting Deception Tuesday, February 1, 2011 - Outline said today would be eyewitness testimony - We’ll start that by the end of the lecture, but we’re doing detecting deception now - Quiz 1 results - Brain-based deception measures o We’ll talk about ERP o Also know the MRI results from textbook - Quiz 1 o About 100 students didn’t write it o About half got As - Midterm o 70 MC o 2 hours o 1 bonus o *About 6-7 questions taken directly from Quiz 1 and 2 o Chapters 1-5 - Quiz 2 o Due next week o Chapters 4-5 - **Question** o In a study be Klaver et al. (2008), students were brought into the lab to examine false confessions. Subjects were accused of committing a crime (hitting a forbidden computer key) that they had in fact not committed. Two factors were manipulated: interrogation techniques and plausibility. What did this research find?  A) the type fo interrogation had no influence on false confessions  B) Participants never confessed to hitting the wrong button  C) Participants in the high plausibility condition were less likely to confess  D) Minimization was more effective than maximization at eliciting false confessions **THIS ONE  E) None of the above o “During the first 20 years of your life, did you ever think of seriously hurting someone?” This is an example of what type of polygraph question?  A) Control question - Detecting Deception o Dr. Cal Lightman can tell from posture/voice whether you’re lying o Microexpressions o Go on website and you can tell whether or not he/she is lying from video o See microexpressions, try to identify o MC questions about the prevalence of lying o Fun - Thermal imaging o Customs—infrared beams o Measure facial temperature o Being questioned at same time o Measuring particularly the core facial temperature o Top picture: lots of flushing (red/yellow) o Bottom picture: none (blue) o Easier to use in the context of screening people o They don’t know you’re measuring facial temperature - Can you detect the lie? o A) I graduated from high school in Japan, first year of university in Tokyo. o B) I played bantam hockey in my early teens while living in Kingston.  *This one o C) I have an identical twin sister who is a lawyer living in Vancouver. - Detecting deception o Emotional framework  Anxious –detect through physiological arousal  Facial temperature  Polygraph  Blink rate  Pupil expansion o Cognitive framework  Takes a lot of energy to lie  More complex lies are easier to detect (falsify a whole alibi over a ten hour period)  People would slow down to think about what they’re saying, remember what they said in the last interrogation  A lot of pauses  Ask police to repeat questions in order to have time to think o Control framework  Try to control aspects of behavior (verbal output, body motion)  Liar sounds less spontaneous, less body motion - There’s no clear “correct” framework—extremely difficult to tell when people are lying - fMRI research—spontaneous lies different from rehearsed lies—challenging to use fMRI - ERP research since mid-1980s o Brain wave activity to detect o Plot negative up, positive down o Will show negative wave 100 ms after stimulus (picture/audio signal) o Want to make sure you perceived it o P300—positive wave, 300 ms **looking for this one o Read dates—when you hear your birthday, it will be meaningful—will display P300 to meaningful information o (taking GKT and measuring brain potentials instead of skin conductance—if you were the one who killed someone and you strangled with rope, you would react more strongly to the rope) o Expensive vs. polygraph - Brain fingerprinting o Farwell worked with Emmanual Donchin for dissertation o Companty called Brain Fingerprinting o Claims technology is 100% accurate o Police contacted him for Terry Herrington case—charged and convicted of first- degree murder around 1977 (killed security guard at car dealership, there were 2 teenagers involved) o Defense team hired Farwell to do ERP test o Informant came, was offered $5,000 to say he shot the guard o He’s in jail for 27 years, Farwell comes in, does test o Goes back and gets photos of crime scene—EEG in 2000 o Much time has passed—man has been convicted, stood trial, knows a lot of details by now o Photos- trying to look for details that only the perpetrator would know (like GKT)  People who killed guard broke in and ran through really tall weeds  Asked how tall the weeds were  Asked about his alibi (details about the concert) o This person was innocent, it was entered in the court during the appeal process o But Farwell makes it sound like it was the main piece of evidence used to exonerate the guy—there was one line about how the BF was not necessary, not considered. o Farwell has only published 1 peer-reviewed article, based on his dissertation in 1988 - 3 volunteers- talk about event that happened- either true or false o 1) Lying- correct o 2) Truth- wrong (lying) o 3) Truth- correct - Best cues o Vocal cues  Increase in voice pitch  Speech fillers (um)  Slower rate (cognitive load) o Nonvocal cues  Textbook is wrong- said more hand gestures  Recent analysis: FEWER hand, foot, leg movements o Verbal cues  Less detail  Less compelling  Less cooperative (don’t want to repeat) - Scott Peterson o Christmas eve—didn’t want to live with his pregnant wife (8 months pregnan
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