PSYC 2400 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Offender Profiling, Geographic Profiling, Serial Crime

15 views8 pages
LECTURE FOUR: OFFENDER AND GEOGRAPHIC PROFILING
What is Offender Profiling?
A technique for identifying the personality and behavioural (+
demographic) features of an offender based on an analysis of the
crimes he/she has committed (John Douglas et al., 1986)
Criminal Profiling:
An investigative technique for identifying the major personality and
behavioural characteristics of an individual based upon an analysis
of the crimes he or she has committed
Used When:
oIt is difficult to identify a suspect, when the victim and
offender are strangers, and when there is no clear motive.
oTo help set traps to flush out an offender
oDetermine whether a threatening note should be taken
seriously
oTo give advice on how best to interrogate a suspect
oTell prosecutors how to break down defendants in cross-
examinations
Also called behavioural investigative advisor: often used instead
because this term more accurately describes the wide range of
activities that profiles are now involved in, and only which involve
making predictions about offender’s backgrounds
Most famous case is thought to be Jack the Ripper and NYC Mad
Bomber
Goals of Offender Profiling
1. Suspect prioritization
2. New lines of enquiry
3. Interview strategies
4. Predict dangerousness
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
5. Flush out offender
The History of Profiling
FBI (1970)
First time profiles were produced in a systematic way by law
enforcement, and first time training was provided in how to
construct criminal profiles.
Current State of Affairs in Canada
RCMP Behavioural Sciences Branch
Offender profiling
Geographic profiling
Truth verification
ViCLAS AKA Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System: which was
developed by the RCMP to collect and analyse information on
serious crimes from across Canada.
National Sex Offender Registry: not publically available for
protective reasoning
Linkage Blindness: An inability on the part of the police to link
geographically dispersed serial crimes committed by the same
offender because of a lack of information sharing among police
agencies.
How is a Profile Constructed?
WHAT: refers to the material that profiles collect at the start of an
investigation + WHY: refers to motivation of the crime at each scene
behaviour = WHO: crime refers to actual profile that is eventually
constructed once the WHAT and WHY are determined (characteristics
of person)
Inductive Profiling
Profiling the background characteristics of an unknown offender
based on what is known about other offenders and solved cases.
o80% of serial killers who attack people in parking lots are
white males
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
oOur offender has attacked 3 people in parking lots, therefore
it is likely that our offender is a white male
AKA statistic approach
Relies on existing data bases and stat information. Use this data
base by entering crime information and finding similar crimes.
Deductive Profiling
Profiling the background characteristics of an unknown offender
from evidence left at the crime scenes by that particular offender
oMutilating body of a female victim is found with little blood
and no clothing
oLocation is not the primary crime site due to the lack of blood
and clothing found at scene
Solely on what is known about the specific crime, not based on any
similar previous crime/case information
FBI “Organized-Disorganized Model” (Hazelwood & Douglas,
1980)
An offender’s crimes can be classified as organized (well-planned)
or disorganized (chaotic)
Profiling model used by FBI that assumes the crime scenes and
backgrounds of serial offender’s characteristics can be classified as
organized (self-control, methodical) or disorganized (impulsive,
disturbed, potential psychopathology)
Crime scene behaviour reflects an offender’s background
characteristics
Offence Behaviours
Organized
Well planned
use of restraints
ante mortem
use of vehicle
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 8 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
Monthly
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.