PSYC 2400 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Meta-Analysis, Restorative Justice

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LECTURE EIGHT: SENTENCING:
Sentencing
Imposition of a legal sanction on persons convicted of an offence
Restorative Justice: An approach for dealing with the crime problem
that emphasizes repairing the harm caused by crime. Based on
philosophy that when victims, offenders, and community members
meet voluntarily to decide how to achieve this, transformation can
result.
Purposes of Sentencing
1. Denunciation: public condemnation of someone or something
2. Specific deterrence: Sentencing to reduce the probability that an
offender will reoffend in the future
3. General deterrence: Sentencing to reduce the probability that
members of general public will offend in the future
4. Incapacitation
5. Rehabilitation
6. Reparation: sentence where the offender has to make a monetary
payment to the victim or the community
7. Promote responsibility
Principles of Sentencing
A sentence must be proportionate to the gravity of the offence
A sentence must be proportionate to the responsibility of the offender
A sentence should not deprive the offender of liberty if at all possible
Sentencing Options
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- Absolute discharge: the release of an offender into the community
with no conditions out in place
- Reparation: making amends for wrongfulness, and a sentence
where the offender has to make monetary payment to the
victim/community
- Fines: Sentence where offender has to make a monetary payment
to court
- Community service: A sentence that involves the offender
performing a duty in the community, often way of paying off fine
- Conditional sentences: sentence served in the community
- Imprisonment: served in prison
Are These Options Effective?
Punishment based strategies generally result in higher rates of
recidivism
The Death Penalty (DP)
In Canada:
DP abolished in 1976/1999
In the US:
32 states permit the DP
1,403 executions to date since reinstatement in 1976
3,054 inmates on death row in 2014
Arguments Against the Death Penalty
The DP does not act as a deterrent
The DP is expensive
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