PSYC 2400 Lecture 9: Psychopathy

55 views12 pages
22 Apr 2016
Department
Course
Professor
!"#$%&!'(%#
)*+,-./0
$123,45-.//
&*4.67.'845+92:;.86;,.7286<;.;45+2=.>+==45;
?
@4+*.>+A*2334A.1+;.B+9,+8;.C<,.2=;6.4D1<84A.9653;4;.7568.,14.=692=.E52B4F25A.
;6.,12,.14.96<=A.>443.,5631+4;.7568.,14.C6*4;.2*A.;>+*.67.,14;4.B+9,+8;
?
@4+*.G2;.7+5;,.,16<E1,.<*7+,.765.,5+2=.C<,.27,45.;684.,+84.+*.2.84*,2=.142=,1.
729+=+,FH.14.G2;.,5+4A.+*./IJK.765.,14.8<5A45.67.L45*+94.M65A4*.+*.G1+91.14.
5494+B4A.=+74.+835+;6*84*,.27,45.C4+*E.A+2E*6;4A.G+,1.;91+N63154*+2
?
OA.@4+*
"684.;91+N63154*+9;.254.3;F91632,1;H.C<,.*6.8654.;6.,12*.,14.E4*452=.
363<=2,+6*
"91+N63154*+9.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1+9
?
(1+;.+;.2.,5+9>F.6*4-.3;F91632,1F.92*.699<5.A<4.,6.C52+*.A282E4H.C<,.
3;F91632,1;.A6*:,.,4*A.,6.12B4.E56;;.96E*+,+B4.
L52+*.P282E4.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1+9
?
M12,.!;F91632,1F.+;.Q6,
!45123;.R<;;+2:;.86;,.*6,65+6<;.;45+2=.>+==45
?
M2;.54;36*;+C=4.765.2,.=42;,.SI.8<5A45;H.36;;+C=F.J0
?
M2;.6*.;69+2C=4.91+=A.<*,+=.14.1+,.1+;.142A.G14*.14.74==.677.2.;G+*ET.756*,.,12,.
36+*,.6*H.14.G2;.2EE54;;+B4H.2*,+;69+2=H.2*A.67,4*.,42;4A.765.C4+*E.2.U54,25AU
?
M2;.C2A=F.27749,4A.CF.1+;.E52*A72,145:;.A42,1H.2,.G1+91.36+*,.14.C4E2*.>+==+*E.
84*.+*.,14.325>H.2*A.;,+9>+*E.B6A>2.C6,,=4;.+*.,14+5.;><==;.,6.4*;<54.,14F.G454.
A42A
?
'=;6.82A4.B+A46;.67.1+8;4=7.16=A+*E.91+=A54*.<3;+A4.A6G*.2*A.;,2,+*E-.U#6<.254.
+*.8F.36G45.*6GU
?
'=4D2*A45.!+91<;1>+
(14.3;F91632,1.92*.2,.,+84;.C4.+83<=;+B4H.C<,.14.+;*:,.7<4=4A.CF.
<*96*,56==2C=4.<5E4;
)*96*,56==2C=4.<5E4;.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1
?
'E2+*-.+7.14.,1+*>;.14:;.U;<336;4A.,6U.<*A45,2>4.1+;.29,+6*;H.,14*.14:;.*6,.
2.3;F91632,1
V6==6G+*E."2,2*+9.5+,<2=;.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1?
M12,.!;F91632,1F.+;.Q6,
'*.'845+92*.;45+2=.>+==45.96*B+9,4A.67.2.;45+4;.67.;166,+*E.2,,29>;.,12,.C4E2*.+*.
,14.;<8845.67./IWJ
?
%4.96*74;;4A.,6.2==.67.,148.2*A.9=2+84A.2.A486*.,12,.36;;4;;4A.1+;.
*4+E1C6<5:;.A6E.12A.96882*A4A.1+8.,6.>+==
?
X*./IKWH.14.C49284.2.C65*Y2E2+*.$15+;,+2*H.2*A.2;>4A.,12,.7568.,12,.36+*,.
765G25A.14.C4.5474554A.,6.2;.,14.U"6*.67.%634U
?
X*.,14.8+A.I0;.14.284*A4A.1+;.96*74;;+6*.,6.9=2+8.,12,.14.12A.C44*.2.848C45.
67.2.B+6=4*,."2,2*+9.9<=,.,12,.65914;,52,4A.,14.+*9+A4*,;.2;.5+,<2=.8<5A45
?
$<554*,=F.;45B+*E.J.=+74.;4*,4*94;?
P2B+A.L45>6G+,N
X7.,14F.,5<=F.16=A.,12,.+A46=6EFH.,14F.356C2C=F.A6*:,.,1+*>.,12,.G12,.
,14F:54.A6+*E.+;.G56*EZ.(14.3;F91632,1.<*A45;,2*A;.5+E1,.7568.G56*E
V6==6G+*E.54=+E+6<;.+A46=6EF.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1?
&*=F.2.;4=49,.;<C;4,.67.,14.95+8+*2=.363<=2,+6*.844,;.95+,45+2.765.
3;F91632,1F
$5+8+*2=.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1?
M12,.!;F91632,1F.+;.Q6,
[+==45.JI.3463=4.+*.2.82;;.;166,+*E.2,.2.M65>45;.#6<,1.\42E<4.9283?
%4=A.2.725Y5+E1,.8+=+,2*,.+A46=6EF?
&*.,14.A2F.67.,14.2,,29>;H.L54+B+>.4=49,56*+92==F. A+;,5+C<,4A.2.96834*A+<8.67.
,4D,;.4*,+,=4A.]0K^-.'.O<56342*.P49=252,+6*.67.X*A434*A4*94H.G1+91.92==.X;=28.
2*A.$<=,<52=._25D+;8.U,14.4*48FUH.2*A.25E<4.765.,14.B+6=4*,.2**+1+=2,+6*.67.
8<=,+9<=,<52=+;8
?
'*A45;.L415+*E.L54+B+>
(1<;H.+,.+;.*6,.842;<54A.C2;4A.`4*,+54=Fa.6*.6*4:;.C412B+6<5
!;F91632,1.+;.2.345;6*2=+,F.A+;65A45
-
R4A<94A.4D345+4*94. 67.945,2+*.486,+6*;-.7425H.E<+=,H.4832,1F
X*9542;4A.65+4*,2,+6*.,6G25A;.54G25A-.+83<=;+B4H.;4*;2,+6*Y;44>+*E
$1258+*E.C<,.82*+3<=2,+B4-.32,16=6E+92=.=F+*E
!45123;.2*,+;69+2=.`36,4*,+2==F.2.96*;4b<4*94.52,145.,12*.2.92<;4a
$12529,45+;,+9;.67.,14.3;F91632,1.+*9=<A4-
-
M12,.+;.2.!;F91632,1c
'.;48+Y;,5<9,<54A.+*,45B+4G.+;.<;4A.,6.A+2E*6;4.3;F91632,1F
d<4;,+6*;.+*b<+54.+*,6.728+=FH.;9166=H.75+4*A;H.G65>H.345;6*2=.2*A.95+8+*2=.=+74H.
,6.E2+*.2.7<==.233549+2,+6*.765.,14.345;6*.2*A.,14+5.345;6*2=+,Fe=+74;,F=4
O291.!$\YR.+,48.+;.;9654A.2.0H./.65.]T.,1<;.2.,6,2=.;9654.67.S0.+;.36;;+C=4
@=+C.2*A.;<3457+9+2=.91258
@52*A+6;4.;4=7YG65,1
!2,16=6E+92=.=F+*E
$6**+*E.2*A.82*+3<=2,+B4
\29>.67.54865;4.65.E<+=,
"12==6G.27749,
$2==6<;*4;;.65.=29>.67.4832,1F
V2+=<54.,6.29943,.54;36*;+C+=+,F
_2*F.;165,Y,458.825+,2=.54=2,+6*;1+3;
!568+;9<+,F
!252;+,+9.=+74;,F=4
!665.C412B+6<52=.96*,56=;
O25=F.C412B+6<52=.356C=48;
\29>.67.542=+;,+9. =6*EY,458.E62=;
Q44A.765.;,+8<=2,+6*
X83<=;+B+,F
X554;36*;+C+=+,F
f<B4*+=4.A4=+*b<4*9F
R4B692,+6*.67.96*A+,+6*2=.54=42;4
$5+8+*2=.B45;2,+=+,F
(6.C4.A+2E*6;4A.2;.3;F91632,1+9H.F6<.8<;,.;9654.^0.65.1+E145
!;F91632,1F.$149>=+;,.R4B+;4A.`!$\YRa
@=+C.2*A.;<3457+9+2=.91258
@52*A+6;4.;4=7YG65,1
!2,16=6E+92=.=F+*E
$6**+*E.2*A.82*+3<=2,+B4
\29>.67.54865;4.65.E<+=,
"12==6G.27749,
$2==6<;*4;;.65.=29>.67.4832,1F
V2+=<54.,6.29943,.54;36*;+C+=+,F
_2*F.;165,Y,458.825+,2=.54=2,+6*;1+3;.3568+;9<+,F
V29,65./
-
Q44A.765.;,+8<=2,+6*
!252;+,+9.=+74;,F=4
\6G.C412B+6<52=.96*,56=;
O25=F.C412B+6<52=.356C=48;
\29>.67.542=+;,+9. =6*EY,458.E62=;
X83<=;+B+,F
X554;36*;+C+=+,F
f<B4*+=4.A4=+*b<4*9F
R4B692,+6*.67.96*A+,+6*2=.54=42;4
$5+8+*2=.B45;2,+=+,F
V29,65.]
-
(G6.P+77454*,.V29,65;
V2+=<54.,6.96*7658.,6.;69+2=.*658;.G+,1.54;349,.,6.=2G7<=.C412B+6<5;.2;.
+*A+92,4A.CF.54342,4A=F.3457658+*E.29,;.,12,.254.E56<*A;.765.2554;,T
P494+,7<=*4;;H.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.54342,4A.=F+*EH.<;4.67.2=+2;4;H.65.96**+*E.
6,145;.765.345;6*2=.3567+,.65.3=42;<54T
X83<=;+B+,F.65.72+=<54.,6.3=2*.2142AT
X55+,2C+=+,F.2*A.2EE54;;+B4*4;;H.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.54342,4A.31F;+92=.7+E1,;.65.
2;;2<=,;T
R49>=4;;.A+;54E25A.765.;274,F.67.;4=7.65.6,145;T
$6*;+;,4*,.+554;36*;+C+=+,FH.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.54342,4A.72+=<54.,6.;<;,2+*.
96*;+;,4*,.G65>.C412B+6<5.65.16*65.7+*2*9+2=.6C=+E2,+6*;T
\29>.67.54865;4H.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.C4+*E.A+77454*,.,6.65.52,+6*2=+N+*E.12B+*E.
1<5,H.8+;,542,4AH.65.;,6=4*.7568.2*6,145T
(14.+*A+B+A<2=.+;.2,.=42;,./K.F425;H.,1454.+;.4B+A4*94.67.$6*A<9,.P+;65A45.
G+,1.6*;4,.C47654.2E4./g.F425;H.2*A.,14.699<554*94.67.2*,+;69+2=.
C412B+6<5.+;.*6,.4D9=<;+B4=F.A<5+*E.,14.96<5;4.67."91+N63154*+2.65.2._2*+9.
O3+;6A4
'.345B2;+B4.32,,45*.67.A+;54E25A.765.2*A.B+6=2,+6*.67.,14.5+E1,;.67.6,145;.
699<55+*E.;+*94.2E4./g.F425;H.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.,1544.`65.8654a.67.,14.76==6G+*E-
'*,+;69+2=.!45;6*2=+,F.P+;65A45.`'"!Pa
!;F91632,1F.B45;<;.'"!P
!$\YR.B45;<;.'"!P
'"!P.<;4;.2.behavioural+approachH.48312;+N+*E.,14.2*,+;69+2=.C412B+6<5;H.
;69+2=.82=2Ah<;,84*,.2*A.9156*+9.+554;36*;+C+=+,F
!$\YR.`729,65./H.+*.325,+9<=25a-.<,+=+N4;.2.process+approachH.48312;+N+*E.,14.
;349+7+9.345;6*2=+,F.35694;;4;.,12,.254.2;;<84A.,6.<*A45=+4.,14.A+;65A45
(14.35694;;.23356291.12;.C44*.299<;4A.67.C4+*E.,66.B2E<4H.G+,16<,.2.
125A.A+2E*6;,+9.A47+*+,+6*
(14.C412B+6<52=.23356291.12;.C44*.299<;4A.67.,52*;=2,+*E.2*,+;69+2=.
C412B+6<5;.+*,6.2.542=.3;F916=6E+92=.A+;65A45
(6.;684.4D,4*,H.G4.82F.;2F.,12,.'!P.92*.C4,,45.+A4*,+7F.UM16UH.G14542;.
,14.!$\YR.92*.C4,,45.+A4*,+7F.UG1FU
X83=+92,+6*;c
!;F91632,1F.+;.1+E1=F.96554=2,4A.G+,1.95+8+*2=.C412B+6<5
",25,.6774*A+*E.2,.2.F6<*E45.2E4
!45;+;,.=6*E45
O*E2E4.+*.8654.B+6=4*,.6774*94;
O*E2E4.+*.2.E542,45.*<8C45.67.6774*94.,F34;.`95+8+*2=.B45;2,+=+,Fa
!;F91632,1;-
$6*;,+,<,4.C4,G44*./0Y]0i.67.,14.35+;6*.363<=2,+6*
(1+;.+;.C492<;4.,14.3;F91632,1.+;.;+E*+7+92*,=F.8654.=+>4=F.,6.C4.2.
54342,.6774*A45
§
'54.54;36*;+C=4.765.2;.8<91.2;.J0i.67.;69+4,2=.95+84
LF.;684.4;,+82,4;H.3;F91632,1;-
!;F91632,1F.2*A.&774*A+*E
!;F91632,1;.A6.9688+,.8654.B+6=4*,.95+84;H.C<,.,1+;.82F.C4.54=2,4A.,6.,14+5.
1+E145.52,4.67.95+84.+*.E4*452=
'.842*;.,6.2*.4*AH.52,145.,12*.,14.4*A.+,;4=7
M14*.B+6=4*94.699<5;H.+,.,4*A;.,6.C4.86,+B2,4A.CF.542A+=F.+A4*,+7+2C=4.E62=;
!463=4.8<5A45.765.82*F.j486,+6*2=k.542;6*;
_<5A45.+;.29,<2==F.72+5=F.<*54=2,4A.,6.3;F91632,1F
!;F91632,1F.2*A.l+6=4*,.&774*A+*E
L56G*.m.V65,1.`/IIWa-.*6.2;;69+2,+6*
!65,45.4,.2=.`]000a-.74G45.;4D<2=.6774*94;.+*.3;F91632,1+9.;283=4
!;F91632,1F.+;.29,<2==F.*6,.;,56*E=F.2;;69+2,4A.G+,1.;4D<2=.6774*94;
(14.542;6*.765.,1+;.82F.C4.+*1454*,.+*.,14.A+;65A45.+,;4=7-.,14.3;F91632,1.+;*:,.
E4*452==F.,2>4*.CF.<*96*,56==2C=4.<5E4;H.2;.82F.C4.,14.;4D<2=.6774*A45
!;F91632,1F.2*A."4D<2=.&774*A+*E
V+,;.,14+5.96**+*Ee82*+3<=2,+B4.*2,<54
'E2+*H.,14F:==.9688+,.B+6=4*94.+7.54b<+54AnC<,.E4*452==F.6*=F.+7.54b<+54A
V52<A.+;.,14.95+84.86;,.9=6;4=F.=+*>4A.,6.3;F91632,1F
!;F91632,1F.2*A.V52<A
(14.1+E145.52,4.67.549+A+B+;8.82F.C4.54=2,4A.,6.,14.54=2,+B4.+*47749,+B4*4;;.67.
+*,45B4*,+6*;.765.3;F91632,1F
M14*.3;F91632,1;.9683=4,4.,542,84*,H.+,.82F.82>4.,148.G65;4
!;F91632,1F.2*A.(542,84*,.O7749,+B4*4;;
X*A44AH.;684.3463=4.G+,1.3;F91632,1+9.912529,45+;,+9;.254.356A<9,+B4.
848C45;.67.;69+4,F
$12529,45+;,+9;.67.3;F91632,1F.82F.C4.<;47<=.765.,14;4.35674;;+6*;
§
X*.2.5494*,.;,<AF.67.]0^.9653652,4.35674;;+6*2=;H.K.+*A+B+A<2=;.`gia.;9654A.
6B45.^0.6*.,14.!$\YR
",<A4*,;.254.;684,+84;.;<535+;4A.,6.1425.,12,.*6,.2==.3;F91632,1;.9688+,.
95+84;
M12,:;.,14.A+77454*94.C4,G44*.3;F91632,1;.,12,.A6.2*A.A6*:,.C49684.95+8+*2=;
!;F91632,1F.+*.,14.$688<*+,F
X*.96*,52;,.,6.E4*452=.6774*A45.363<=2,+6*;H.,14.3;F91632,1.233425;.,6.12B4.
=25E4=F.+*,29,.Xd
!45943,<2=.35694;;+*E
$6E*+,+B4.A4B4=6384*,
U4D49<,+B4.96*,56=U
\425*+*E.2C+=+,F
"+8+=25=FH.54;42591.;<EE4;,;.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.12;.=25E4=F.+*,29,-
R4848C45-.2.35+825F.54b<+5484*,.67.3;F91632,1F.+;.2*.2C+=+,F.,6.7<==F.
96835414*A.5+E1,.7568.G56*E
X*,4==+E4*94
!25,+9+32*,;.12A.,6.356944A.,156<E1.2.82N4.,12,.96*;,2*,=F.677454A.,148.
76<5.A+549,+6*2=.916+94;
/.A+549,+6*.G2;.965549,T.^.G454.G56*E
&7.,14.^.G56*E.6*4;H./.G2;.3<*+;14A.G+,1.;169>
!;F91632,1;.82A4.,14.;284.*<8C45.67.965549,.916+94;.2;.*6*Y
3;F91632,1;H.2*A.E6,.,156<E1.,14.82N4.2;.b<+9>=F
L<,.*6*Y3;F91632,1;.2=;6.A+77454*,+2,4A.C4,G44*.,14.;169>.2*A.*6*Y
;169>.32,1;T.3;F91632,1;.A+A.*6,
\F>>4*.`/IgWa-.V+5;,.A486*;,52,4A.,12,.3;F91632,1;.12B4.2.A47+9+,.+*.,14.2C+=+,F.
,6.2B6+A.3<*+;184*,H.G+,1.<;4.67.=2CF5+*,1Y=+>4.82N4.,2;>
"169>
§
_6*4,25F.3<*+;184*,
§
"69+2=.!<*+;184*,
§
"9182<>.`/IW0a.54b<+54A.325,+9+32*,;.,6.3457658.,14.\F>>4*._4*,2=._2N4.
<*A45.6*4.67.,1544.96*A+,+6*;-
!;F91632,1;.;16G45.3665.32;;+B4.2B6+A2*94.=425*+*E.<*A45.,14.;169>.2*A.
;69+2=.3<*+;184*,.96*A+,+6*;H.C<,.A+A.*6,.A+7745.7568.*6*Y3;F91632,1;.+*.
,14.86*4,25F.3<*+;184*,.96*A+,+6*
!45123;.,14.3;F91632,1;.;+83=F.254*:,.86,+B2,4A.4*6<E1.,6.9254c
P+77+9<=,F.'B6+A+*E.!<*+;184*,
!25,+9+32*,;.254.;16G*.2.9=69>H.2*A.254.,6=A.,12,.G14*.,14.9=69>.1+,;.N456H.
,14F.254.E6+*E.,6.5494+B4. 2.32+*7<=.;169>
!;F91632,1;.;16G.;82==45.+*9542;4;
§
_6;,.3463=4.;16G.+*9542;4;.+*.;>+*.96*A<9,2*94.`;G42,+*Ea.2;.,14.9=69>.
*425;.N456
%254:;.$6<*,A6G*.!252A+E8
\6G.'*,+9+32,65F.R4;36*;4;
\6G.32+*.;4*;+,+B+,F
\6G.96*945*.765.,14.32+*.67.6,145;
\6G.;,25,=4.547=4D
&,145.R4A<94A.R4;36*;4;
(14.35+825F.912529,45+;,+9. 67.,14.3;F91632,1.233425;.,6.C4.2.96*;+;,4*,.
54A<9,+6*.+*.,14+5.4D345+4*9+*E. 67.486,+6*2=.+*76582,+6*
_6;,.6CB+6<;.G+,1.54E25A.,6.*4E2,+B4.486,+6*;
§
V425.2*A.;2A*4;;.+*.325,+9<=25
§
(1+;.A47+9+,.82F.*6,.54=2,4.,6.2==.486,+6*;.4b<2==F
R4A<94A.O86,+6*2=.!5694;;+*E
R4A<94A.2C+=+,F.,6.+A4*,+7F.74257<=e;2A.7294;.`L=2+5.4,.2=ZH.]00Sa
R4A<94A.2C+=+,F.,6.+A4*,+7F.74257<=.B692=.+*,6*2,+6*;.`L=2+5.4,.2=ZH.]00]a
R4A<94A.2,,5+C<,+6*;.67.E<+=,.,6.6,145;.`L=2+5.4,.2=ZH./IIga
R4A<94A.;4*;+,+B+,F.,6.A+;,54;;.9<4;.`L=2+5H./IIWa
OB+A4*94.67.R4A<94A.O86,+6*2=.!5694;;+*E
X*,29,.345;349,+B4.,2>+*E.`92*.<*A45;,2*A.G12,.2*6,145.345;6*.+;.
,1+*>+*Ee744=+*Ea
§
R4A<94A.4832,1F.`A64;*:,.9254.2C6<,.,14.6,145.345;6*:;.
,16<E1,;e744=+*E;a
§
$6*,52;,+*E.345;349,+B4Y,2>+*E.2*A.4832,1F.82F.C4.,14.42;+4;,.G2F.,6.
+*A+92,4.,14.3;F91632,1;:.96E*+,+B4e486,+6*2=.A+916,68F
!45;349,+B4Y,2>+*E..B45;<;.O832,1F
M12,.=42A;.,6.,14;4.=425*+*E.356C=48;c
\6G.V425.%F36,14;+;
'9,+B2,4;.G14*.74257<=
%+E145.+*.2*D+4,F.32,+4*,;
R4A<94A.7425Y96*A+,+6*+*E
§
R4A<94A.;,25,=4
§
R4A<94A.2B6+A2*94
§
'*+82=;.G+,16<,.28FEA2=24.;16G-
'=;6.233425;.+*B6=B4A.+*.7425.84865F.76582,+6*
'8FEA2=2-.V425.94*,52=
M1454.+;.7425.+*.,14.C52+*c
!6,4*,+2==F.=6G45.B6=<84
!6,4*,+2==F.54A<94A.29,+B+,F.+*.945,2+*.96*,4D,;
!6,4*,+2==F.54A<94A.96**49,+B+,F.,6.6,145.C52+*.54E+6*;
OB+A4*94.+;.8+D4AH.16G4B45.2.E56G+*E.C6AF.67.54;42591.;<EE4;,;.,12,.28FEA2=2.
;,5<9,<54.65.7<*9,+6*.82F.C4.2C*6582=.+*.,14.3;F91632,1
'8FEA2=2.'C*6582=+,+4;.+*.!;F91632,1;
R4A<94A.4832,1F
R4A<94A.E<+=,
R4A<94A.;1284
R4A<94A.2*D+4,F
R4A<94A.*4E2,+B4.486,+6*;H.C562A=F.96*94+B4A
!56C=48;.G+,1.6,145.486,+6*;.12B4.2=;6.C44*.1F36,14;+N4A.,6.C4.2,.,14.566,.67.
,14.3;F91632,1+9.A+;65A45
X,.+;.+8365,2*,.765.7<,<54.54;42591.,6.+A4*,+7F.,14.86;,.54=4B2*,.486,+6*2=.
356C=48;
&,145.O86,+6*2=.%F36,14;4;
"<EE4;,.,12,.+,.+;*:,.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.12;.2.A47+9+,.+*.,14.2C+=+,F.,6.744=.
486,+6*H.C<,.52,145.,12,.,14F.A6*:,.2,,4*A.,6.,14.+*76582,+6*.,12,.G6<=A.
=42A.,6.,14.486,+6*2=.54;36*;4
'54.;<EE4;,+*E.;684,1+*E.2>+*.,6.,14.3;F91632,1.G425+*E.U165;4.
C=+*A45;UH.C<,.C4=+4B4.,12,.+,.+;.;684,1+*E.8654.7<*A284*,2=.2C6<,.,14.
96*;,5<9,+6*.67.,14.3;F91632,1:;.C2;+9.2,,4*,+6*2=.;F;,48
(5F+*E.,6.82>4.2.92547<=.A+;,+*9,+6*.C4,G44*.486,+6*.2*A.2,,4*,+6*
L<,.+,.35636;4;.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.G6<=A.;16G.*6582=.=4B4=;.67.486,+6*.
+7.+,.G2;*:,.765.,14+5.2,,4*,+6*2=.356C=48;
(14.54;36*;4.86A<=2,+6*.1F36,14;+;.;,+==.5496E*+N4;.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.12;.
54A<94A.486,+6*2=.54;36*;4;
R4;36*;4._6A<=2,+6*.%F36,14;+;
(14.l25+6<;._6A4=;
"4B452=.;,<A+4;.*6G.;<EE4;,.,12,.3;F91632,1;.92*.;16G.486,+6*2=.35694;;+*E.
,12,.233425;.*6582=.G14*.2;>4A.,6.,5F
!6=+,+9+2*;H.$O&;H.4,9Z.82F.A6.G4==.,6.12B4.;684.U3;F91632,1+9.b<2=+,+4;U
&,145.1F36,14;4;.+*9=<A4.,14.36;;+C+=+,F.,12,.3;F91632,1F.+;.29,<2==F.2A23,+B4
L<,.+;.+,.542==F.2.UA47+9+,Uc
"684.9=+*+9+2*;e54;4259145;.254.8654.63,+8+;,+9.,12*.6,145;
f<5F.5482+*;.6<,.6*.,1+;.b<4;,+6*
)*=+>4.G+,1.;684.6,145.A+;65A45;H.,14.3;F91632,1.5254=F.,1+*>;.14.12;.2.
356C=48
(6.,14.96*,525FH.14.E4*452==F.354;4*,;.G+,1.2.*259+;;+;,+9.;4*;4.67.;4=7Y
G65,1
M12,.+;.2E544AH.16G4B45H.+;.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.+;.2.,5+9>F.345;6*2=+,F.,6.,542,
"6.,542,84*,.82F.*6,.6*=F.+*B6=B4.,542,+*E.,14.A+;65A45H.C<,.+*.96*B+*9+*E.,14.
+*A+B+A<2=.,12,.,14F.12B4.2.A+;65A45.+*.,14.7+5;,.3=294
'54.3;F91632,1;.,542,2C=4c
_654.6774*94;.76==6G+*E.,542,84*,
§
_654.B+6=4*,.76==6G+*E.,542,84*,
§
_654.=+>4=F.,6.C4.+*9259452,4A.76==6G+*E.,542,84*,
§
X*A44AH.+*.;4B452=.;,<A+4;H.+*A+B+A<2=;.G16.G4*,.,156<E1.,14.7<==.
,542,84*,.356,696=.4*A4A.<3.G65;4.,12*.,16;4.G16.A+A.*6,.5494+B4.,14.
,542,84*,
O25=F.2,,483,;.,6.A4B4=63.,542,84*,.356,696=;.765.3;F91632,1;.G454.1+E1=F.
<*;<994;;7<=
&*4.36;;+C+=+,F.+;.,12,.,542,84*,.,<5*;.3;F91632,1;.+*,6.C4,,45.3;F91632,1;
O25=F.(542,84*,.',,483,;
'*6,145.36;;+C+=+,F.+;.,12,.G4.;+83=F.12B4*:,.F4,.A4B4=634A.2335635+2,4.
,542,84*,.+*,45B4*,+6*;
$2<,+6*.+;.54b<+54A.+*.h<83+*E.,6.,14.96*9=<;+6*.,12,.3;F91632,1;.254.
<*,542,2C=4
X*,4*A4A.,6.C5+*E.1<8+=+,F.2*A.2.;4*;4.67.634**4;;.,6.729+=+,2,4.
3;F91+2,5+9.,542,84*,;
X*.6*4.325,+9<=25=F.6AA.,542,84*,.356,696=H.3;F91632,1+9.2*A.;91+N63154*+9.
32,+4*,;.+*.&2>.R+AE4.G454.;,5+334A.A6G*H.E+B4*.\"P.2*A.=69>4A.+*.2.5668.
,6E4,145
Q2>4A.\"P."4;;+6*;c.
R4A<94A.B+6=4*94
R4A<94A.95+8+*2=+,F
R4A<94A.;4D<2=.A4B+2*94
"<EE4;,;.2.;684G12,.A+77454*,.;,65F.2*A.C4E<*.,6.A486*;,52,4
Q4G45.M65>
"<EE4;,;.,12,.2,.=42;,.;684.3;F91632,1;.82F.C4.,542,2C=4
\6682*.4,.2=ZH.]00gH.2*A.\2*E,6*.4,.2=ZH.]00J-.C6,1.76<*A.,12,.3;F91632,;.96<=A.
C4.;43452,4A.+*,6.,16;4.G16.A+A.2*A.A+A*:,.3457658.G4==.+*.,542,84*,
&=B45.4,.2=ZH.]0/^-./g].V4A452==FY+*9259452,4A.6774*A45;.325,+9+32,4A.+*.,14.
'EE54;;+6*.L412B+6<5.$6*,56=.`'L$a.356E528
$2=AG4==.2*A.B2*.RFC564>.`]0/^a-.g0i.54A<9,+6*.+*.B+6=4*94.+*.F6<,1;H.
54E25A=4;;.67.!$\YR.;9654
Q4G45.(542,84*,.',,483,;
R494*,.,542,84*,.+*,45B4*,+6*;.254.;16G+*E.+*9542;4AH.C<,.125A=F.
6B45G14=8+*EH.;<994;;
X7.,14.A+;65A45.+;.A<4.,6.2.=29>.67.7425H.,14*.G4.82F.*44A.,6.,25E4,.,1+;.=29>.
67.7425T.+7.,14.A+;65A45.+;.A<4.,6.2,,4*,+6*2=.2C*6582=+,+4;H.,14*.G4.82F.
*44A.,6.,25E4,.,16;4.2C*6582=+,+4;
&*4.356C=48.5482+*;.2.A+;96**49,.C4,G44*.4D345+84*,2=.54;42591.6*.,14.
A+;65A45H.2*A.,14.769<;.67.,542,84*,.+*,45B4*,+6*;
(542,84*,eR4;42591.P+;96**49,
&*4.5494*,.,542,84*,.+*,45B4*,+6*.A+A.,25E4,.,14.3;F91632,1;.1F36,14;+N4A.
96E*+,+B4.2C*6582=+,+4;
V6<*A.,12,.2335635+2,4.96E*+,+B4.5484A+2,+6*.,52+*+*E.+8356B4A.,14.96E*+,+B4.
A47+9+,;.;44*.+*.3;F91632,1;
',,4*,+6*._6A+7+92,+6*
MAR.%7
M4A*4;A2FH. _2591.^0H.]0/J
g-^J.!_
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
!"#$%&!'(%#
)*+,-./0
$123,45-.//
&*4.67.'845+92:;.86;,.7286<;.;45+2=.>+==45;?
@4+*.>+A*2334A.1+;.B+9,+8;.C<,.2=;6.4D1<84A.9653;4;.7568.,14.=692=.E52B4F25A.
;6.,12,.14.96<=A.>443.,5631+4;.7568.,14.C6*4;.2*A.;>+*.67.,14;4.B+9,+8;
?
@4+*.G2;.7+5;,.,16<E1,.<*7+,.765.,5+2=.C<,.27,45.;684.,+84.+*.2.84*,2=.142=,1.
729+=+,FH.14.G2;.,5+4A.+*./IJK.765.,14.8<5A45.67.L45*+94.M65A4*.+*.G1+91.14.
5494+B4A.=+74.+835+;6*84*,.27,45.C4+*E.A+2E*6;4A.G+,1.;91+N63154*+2
?
OA.@4+*
"684.;91+N63154*+9;.254.3;F91632,1;H.C<,.*6.8654.;6.,12*.,14.E4*452=.
363<=2,+6*
"91+N63154*+9.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1+9?
(1+;.+;.2.,5+9>F.6*4-.3;F91632,1F.92*.699<5.A<4.,6.C52+*.A282E4H.C<,.
3;F91632,1;.A6*:,.,4*A.,6.12B4.E56;;.96E*+,+B4.
L52+*.P282E4.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1+9?
M12,.!;F91632,1F.+;.Q6,
!45123;.R<;;+2:;.86;,.*6,65+6<;.;45+2=.>+==45?
M2;.54;36*;+C=4.765.2,.=42;,.SI.8<5A45;H.36;;+C=F.J0?
M2;.6*.;69+2C=4.91+=A.<*,+=.14.1+,.1+;.142A.G14*.14.74==.677.2.;G+*ET.756*,.,12,.
36+*,.6*H.14.G2;.2EE54;;+B4H.2*,+;69+2=H.2*A.67,4*.,42;4A.765.C4+*E.2.U54,25AU
?
M2;.C2A=F.27749,4A.CF.1+;.E52*A72,145:;.A42,1H.2,.G1+91.36+*,.14.C4E2*.>+==+*E.
84*.+*.,14.325>H.2*A.;,+9>+*E.B6A>2.C6,,=4;.+*.,14+5.;><==;.,6.4*;<54.,14F.G454.
A42A
?
'=;6.82A4.B+A46;.67.1+8;4=7.16=A+*E.91+=A54*.<3;+A4.A6G*.2*A.;,2,+*E-.U#6<.254.
+*.8F.36G45.*6GU
?
'=4D2*A45.!+91<;1>+
(14.3;F91632,1.92*.2,.,+84;.C4.+83<=;+B4H.C<,.14.+;*:,.7<4=4A.CF.
<*96*,56==2C=4.<5E4;
)*96*,56==2C=4.<5E4;.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1?
'E2+*-.+7.14.,1+*>;.14:;.U;<336;4A.,6U.<*A45,2>4.1+;.29,+6*;H.,14*.14:;.*6,.
2.3;F91632,1
V6==6G+*E."2,2*+9.5+,<2=;.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1
?
M12,.!;F91632,1F.+;.Q6,
'*.'845+92*.;45+2=.>+==45.96*B+9,4A.67.2.;45+4;.67.;166,+*E.2,,29>;.,12,.C4E2*.+*.
,14.;<8845.67./IWJ
?
%4.96*74;;4A.,6.2==.67.,148.2*A.9=2+84A.2.A486*.,12,.36;;4;;4A.1+;.
*4+E1C6<5:;.A6E.12A.96882*A4A.1+8.,6.>+==
?
X*./IKWH.14.C49284.2.C65*Y2E2+*.$15+;,+2*H.2*A.2;>4A.,12,.7568.,12,.36+*,.
765G25A.14.C4.5474554A.,6.2;.,14.U"6*.67.%634U
?
X*.,14.8+A.I0;.14.284*A4A.1+;.96*74;;+6*.,6.9=2+8.,12,.14.12A.C44*.2.848C45.
67.2.B+6=4*,."2,2*+9.9<=,.,12,.65914;,52,4A.,14.+*9+A4*,;.2;.5+,<2=.8<5A45
?
$<554*,=F.;45B+*E.J.=+74.;4*,4*94;
?
P2B+A.L45>6G+,N
X7.,14F.,5<=F.16=A.,12,.+A46=6EFH.,14F.356C2C=F.A6*:,.,1+*>.,12,.G12,.
,14F:54.A6+*E.+;.G56*EZ.(14.3;F91632,1.<*A45;,2*A;.5+E1,.7568.G56*E
V6==6G+*E.54=+E+6<;.+A46=6EF.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1
?
&*=F.2.;4=49,.;<C;4,.67.,14.95+8+*2=.363<=2,+6*.844,;.95+,45+2.765.
3;F91632,1F
$5+8+*2=.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1
?
M12,.!;F91632,1F.+;.Q6,
[+==45.JI.3463=4.+*.2.82;;.;166,+*E.2,.2.M65>45;.#6<,1.\42E<4.9283
?
%4=A.2.725Y5+E1,.8+=+,2*,.+A46=6EF
?
&*.,14.A2F.67.,14.2,,29>;H.L54+B+>.4=49,56*+92==F. A+;,5+C<,4A.2.96834*A+<8.67.
,4D,;.4*,+,=4A.]0K^-.'.O<56342*.P49=252,+6*.67.X*A434*A4*94H.G1+91.92==.X;=28.
2*A.$<=,<52=._25D+;8.U,14.4*48FUH.2*A.25E<4.765.,14.B+6=4*,.2**+1+=2,+6*.67.
8<=,+9<=,<52=+;8
?
'*A45;.L415+*E.L54+B+>
(1<;H.+,.+;.*6,.842;<54A.C2;4A.`4*,+54=Fa.6*.6*4:;.C412B+6<5
!;F91632,1.+;.2.345;6*2=+,F.A+;65A45
-
R4A<94A.4D345+4*94. 67.945,2+*.486,+6*;-.7425H.E<+=,H.4832,1F
X*9542;4A.65+4*,2,+6*.,6G25A;.54G25A-.+83<=;+B4H.;4*;2,+6*Y;44>+*E
$1258+*E.C<,.82*+3<=2,+B4-.32,16=6E+92=.=F+*E
!45123;.2*,+;69+2=.`36,4*,+2==F.2.96*;4b<4*94.52,145.,12*.2.92<;4a
$12529,45+;,+9;.67.,14.3;F91632,1.+*9=<A4-
-
M12,.+;.2.!;F91632,1c
'.;48+Y;,5<9,<54A.+*,45B+4G.+;.<;4A.,6.A+2E*6;4.3;F91632,1F
d<4;,+6*;.+*b<+54.+*,6.728+=FH.;9166=H.75+4*A;H.G65>H.345;6*2=.2*A.95+8+*2=.=+74H.
,6.E2+*.2.7<==.233549+2,+6*.765.,14.345;6*.2*A.,14+5.345;6*2=+,Fe=+74;,F=4
O291.!$\YR.+,48.+;.;9654A.2.0H./.65.]T.,1<;.2.,6,2=.;9654.67.S0.+;.36;;+C=4
@=+C.2*A.;<3457+9+2=.91258
@52*A+6;4.;4=7YG65,1
!2,16=6E+92=.=F+*E
$6**+*E.2*A.82*+3<=2,+B4
\29>.67.54865;4.65.E<+=,
"12==6G.27749,
$2==6<;*4;;.65.=29>.67.4832,1F
V2+=<54.,6.29943,.54;36*;+C+=+,F
_2*F.;165,Y,458.825+,2=.54=2,+6*;1+3;
!568+;9<+,F
!252;+,+9.=+74;,F=4
!665.C412B+6<52=.96*,56=;
O25=F.C412B+6<52=.356C=48;
\29>.67.542=+;,+9. =6*EY,458.E62=;
Q44A.765.;,+8<=2,+6*
X83<=;+B+,F
X554;36*;+C+=+,F
f<B4*+=4.A4=+*b<4*9F
R4B692,+6*.67.96*A+,+6*2=.54=42;4
$5+8+*2=.B45;2,+=+,F
(6.C4.A+2E*6;4A.2;.3;F91632,1+9H.F6<.8<;,.;9654.^0.65.1+E145
!;F91632,1F.$149>=+;,.R4B+;4A.`!$\YRa
@=+C.2*A.;<3457+9+2=.91258
@52*A+6;4.;4=7YG65,1
!2,16=6E+92=.=F+*E
$6**+*E.2*A.82*+3<=2,+B4
\29>.67.54865;4.65.E<+=,
"12==6G.27749,
$2==6<;*4;;.65.=29>.67.4832,1F
V2+=<54.,6.29943,.54;36*;+C+=+,F
_2*F.;165,Y,458.825+,2=.54=2,+6*;1+3;.3568+;9<+,F
V29,65./
-
Q44A.765.;,+8<=2,+6*
!252;+,+9.=+74;,F=4
\6G.C412B+6<52=.96*,56=;
O25=F.C412B+6<52=.356C=48;
\29>.67.542=+;,+9. =6*EY,458.E62=;
X83<=;+B+,F
X554;36*;+C+=+,F
f<B4*+=4.A4=+*b<4*9F
R4B692,+6*.67.96*A+,+6*2=.54=42;4
$5+8+*2=.B45;2,+=+,F
V29,65.]
-
(G6.P+77454*,.V29,65;
V2+=<54.,6.96*7658.,6.;69+2=.*658;.G+,1.54;349,.,6.=2G7<=.C412B+6<5;.2;.
+*A+92,4A.CF.54342,4A=F.3457658+*E.29,;.,12,.254.E56<*A;.765.2554;,T
P494+,7<=*4;;H.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.54342,4A.=F+*EH.<;4.67.2=+2;4;H.65.96**+*E.
6,145;.765.345;6*2=.3567+,.65.3=42;<54T
X83<=;+B+,F.65.72+=<54.,6.3=2*.2142AT
X55+,2C+=+,F.2*A.2EE54;;+B4*4;;H.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.54342,4A.31F;+92=.7+E1,;.65.
2;;2<=,;T
R49>=4;;.A+;54E25A.765.;274,F.67.;4=7.65.6,145;T
$6*;+;,4*,.+554;36*;+C+=+,FH.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.54342,4A.72+=<54.,6.;<;,2+*.
96*;+;,4*,.G65>.C412B+6<5.65.16*65.7+*2*9+2=.6C=+E2,+6*;T
\29>.67.54865;4H.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.C4+*E.A+77454*,.,6.65.52,+6*2=+N+*E.12B+*E.
1<5,H.8+;,542,4AH.65.;,6=4*.7568.2*6,145T
(14.+*A+B+A<2=.+;.2,.=42;,./K.F425;H.,1454.+;.4B+A4*94.67.$6*A<9,.P+;65A45.
G+,1.6*;4,.C47654.2E4./g.F425;H.2*A.,14.699<554*94.67.2*,+;69+2=.
C412B+6<5.+;.*6,.4D9=<;+B4=F.A<5+*E.,14.96<5;4.67."91+N63154*+2.65.2._2*+9.
O3+;6A4
'.345B2;+B4.32,,45*.67.A+;54E25A.765.2*A.B+6=2,+6*.67.,14.5+E1,;.67.6,145;.
699<55+*E.;+*94.2E4./g.F425;H.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.,1544.`65.8654a.67.,14.76==6G+*E-
'*,+;69+2=.!45;6*2=+,F.P+;65A45.`'"!Pa
!;F91632,1F.B45;<;.'"!P
!$\YR.B45;<;.'"!P
'"!P.<;4;.2.behavioural+approachH.48312;+N+*E.,14.2*,+;69+2=.C412B+6<5;H.
;69+2=.82=2Ah<;,84*,.2*A.9156*+9.+554;36*;+C+=+,F
!$\YR.`729,65./H.+*.325,+9<=25a-.<,+=+N4;.2.process+approachH.48312;+N+*E.,14.
;349+7+9.345;6*2=+,F.35694;;4;.,12,.254.2;;<84A.,6.<*A45=+4.,14.A+;65A45
(14.35694;;.23356291.12;.C44*.299<;4A.67.C4+*E.,66.B2E<4H.G+,16<,.2.
125A.A+2E*6;,+9.A47+*+,+6*
(14.C412B+6<52=.23356291.12;.C44*.299<;4A.67.,52*;=2,+*E.2*,+;69+2=.
C412B+6<5;.+*,6.2.542=.3;F916=6E+92=.A+;65A45
(6.;684.4D,4*,H.G4.82F.;2F.,12,.'!P.92*.C4,,45.+A4*,+7F.UM16UH.G14542;.
,14.!$\YR.92*.C4,,45.+A4*,+7F.UG1FU
X83=+92,+6*;c
!;F91632,1F.+;.1+E1=F.96554=2,4A.G+,1.95+8+*2=.C412B+6<5
",25,.6774*A+*E.2,.2.F6<*E45.2E4
!45;+;,.=6*E45
O*E2E4.+*.8654.B+6=4*,.6774*94;
O*E2E4.+*.2.E542,45.*<8C45.67.6774*94.,F34;.`95+8+*2=.B45;2,+=+,Fa
!;F91632,1;-
$6*;,+,<,4.C4,G44*./0Y]0i.67.,14.35+;6*.363<=2,+6*
(1+;.+;.C492<;4.,14.3;F91632,1.+;.;+E*+7+92*,=F.8654.=+>4=F.,6.C4.2.
54342,.6774*A45
§
'54.54;36*;+C=4.765.2;.8<91.2;.J0i.67.;69+4,2=.95+84
LF.;684.4;,+82,4;H.3;F91632,1;-
!;F91632,1F.2*A.&774*A+*E
!;F91632,1;.A6.9688+,.8654.B+6=4*,.95+84;H.C<,.,1+;.82F.C4.54=2,4A.,6.,14+5.
1+E145.52,4.67.95+84.+*.E4*452=
'.842*;.,6.2*.4*AH.52,145.,12*.,14.4*A.+,;4=7
M14*.B+6=4*94.699<5;H.+,.,4*A;.,6.C4.86,+B2,4A.CF.542A+=F.+A4*,+7+2C=4.E62=;
!463=4.8<5A45.765.82*F.j486,+6*2=k.542;6*;
_<5A45.+;.29,<2==F.72+5=F.<*54=2,4A.,6.3;F91632,1F
!;F91632,1F.2*A.l+6=4*,.&774*A+*E
L56G*.m.V65,1.`/IIWa-.*6.2;;69+2,+6*
!65,45.4,.2=.`]000a-.74G45.;4D<2=.6774*94;.+*.3;F91632,1+9.;283=4
!;F91632,1F.+;.29,<2==F.*6,.;,56*E=F.2;;69+2,4A.G+,1.;4D<2=.6774*94;
(14.542;6*.765.,1+;.82F.C4.+*1454*,.+*.,14.A+;65A45.+,;4=7-.,14.3;F91632,1.+;*:,.
E4*452==F.,2>4*.CF.<*96*,56==2C=4.<5E4;H.2;.82F.C4.,14.;4D<2=.6774*A45
!;F91632,1F.2*A."4D<2=.&774*A+*E
V+,;.,14+5.96**+*Ee82*+3<=2,+B4.*2,<54
'E2+*H.,14F:==.9688+,.B+6=4*94.+7.54b<+54AnC<,.E4*452==F.6*=F.+7.54b<+54A
V52<A.+;.,14.95+84.86;,.9=6;4=F.=+*>4A.,6.3;F91632,1F
!;F91632,1F.2*A.V52<A
(14.1+E145.52,4.67.549+A+B+;8.82F.C4.54=2,4A.,6.,14.54=2,+B4.+*47749,+B4*4;;.67.
+*,45B4*,+6*;.765.3;F91632,1F
M14*.3;F91632,1;.9683=4,4.,542,84*,H.+,.82F.82>4.,148.G65;4
!;F91632,1F.2*A.(542,84*,.O7749,+B4*4;;
X*A44AH.;684.3463=4.G+,1.3;F91632,1+9.912529,45+;,+9;.254.356A<9,+B4.
848C45;.67.;69+4,F
$12529,45+;,+9;.67.3;F91632,1F.82F.C4.<;47<=.765.,14;4.35674;;+6*;
§
X*.2.5494*,.;,<AF.67.]0^.9653652,4.35674;;+6*2=;H.K.+*A+B+A<2=;.`gia.;9654A.
6B45.^0.6*.,14.!$\YR
",<A4*,;.254.;684,+84;.;<535+;4A.,6.1425.,12,.*6,.2==.3;F91632,1;.9688+,.
95+84;
M12,:;.,14.A+77454*94.C4,G44*.3;F91632,1;.,12,.A6.2*A.A6*:,.C49684.95+8+*2=;
!;F91632,1F.+*.,14.$688<*+,F
X*.96*,52;,.,6.E4*452=.6774*A45.363<=2,+6*;H.,14.3;F91632,1.233425;.,6.12B4.
=25E4=F.+*,29,.Xd
!45943,<2=.35694;;+*E
$6E*+,+B4.A4B4=6384*,
U4D49<,+B4.96*,56=U
\425*+*E.2C+=+,F
"+8+=25=FH.54;42591.;<EE4;,;.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.12;.=25E4=F.+*,29,-
R4848C45-.2.35+825F.54b<+5484*,.67.3;F91632,1F.+;.2*.2C+=+,F.,6.7<==F.
96835414*A.5+E1,.7568.G56*E
X*,4==+E4*94
!25,+9+32*,;.12A.,6.356944A.,156<E1.2.82N4.,12,.96*;,2*,=F.677454A.,148.
76<5.A+549,+6*2=.916+94;
/.A+549,+6*.G2;.965549,T.^.G454.G56*E
&7.,14.^.G56*E.6*4;H./.G2;.3<*+;14A.G+,1.;169>
!;F91632,1;.82A4.,14.;284.*<8C45.67.965549,.916+94;.2;.*6*Y
3;F91632,1;H.2*A.E6,.,156<E1.,14.82N4.2;.b<+9>=F
L<,.*6*Y3;F91632,1;.2=;6.A+77454*,+2,4A.C4,G44*.,14.;169>.2*A.*6*Y
;169>.32,1;T.3;F91632,1;.A+A.*6,
\F>>4*.`/IgWa-.V+5;,.A486*;,52,4A.,12,.3;F91632,1;.12B4.2.A47+9+,.+*.,14.2C+=+,F.
,6.2B6+A.3<*+;184*,H.G+,1.<;4.67.=2CF5+*,1Y=+>4.82N4.,2;>
"169>
§
_6*4,25F.3<*+;184*,
§
"69+2=.!<*+;184*,
§
"9182<>.`/IW0a.54b<+54A.325,+9+32*,;.,6.3457658.,14.\F>>4*._4*,2=._2N4.
<*A45.6*4.67.,1544.96*A+,+6*;-
!;F91632,1;.;16G45.3665.32;;+B4.2B6+A2*94.=425*+*E.<*A45.,14.;169>.2*A.
;69+2=.3<*+;184*,.96*A+,+6*;H.C<,.A+A.*6,.A+7745.7568.*6*Y3;F91632,1;.+*.
,14.86*4,25F.3<*+;184*,.96*A+,+6*
!45123;.,14.3;F91632,1;.;+83=F.254*:,.86,+B2,4A.4*6<E1.,6.9254c
P+77+9<=,F.'B6+A+*E.!<*+;184*,
!25,+9+32*,;.254.;16G*.2.9=69>H.2*A.254.,6=A.,12,.G14*.,14.9=69>.1+,;.N456H.
,14F.254.E6+*E.,6.5494+B4. 2.32+*7<=.;169>
!;F91632,1;.;16G.;82==45.+*9542;4;
§
_6;,.3463=4.;16G.+*9542;4;.+*.;>+*.96*A<9,2*94.`;G42,+*Ea.2;.,14.9=69>.
*425;.N456
%254:;.$6<*,A6G*.!252A+E8
\6G.'*,+9+32,65F.R4;36*;4;
\6G.32+*.;4*;+,+B+,F
\6G.96*945*.765.,14.32+*.67.6,145;
\6G.;,25,=4.547=4D
&,145.R4A<94A.R4;36*;4;
(14.35+825F.912529,45+;,+9. 67.,14.3;F91632,1.233425;.,6.C4.2.96*;+;,4*,.
54A<9,+6*.+*.,14+5.4D345+4*9+*E. 67.486,+6*2=.+*76582,+6*
_6;,.6CB+6<;.G+,1.54E25A.,6.*4E2,+B4.486,+6*;
§
V425.2*A.;2A*4;;.+*.325,+9<=25
§
(1+;.A47+9+,.82F.*6,.54=2,4.,6.2==.486,+6*;.4b<2==F
R4A<94A.O86,+6*2=.!5694;;+*E
R4A<94A.2C+=+,F.,6.+A4*,+7F.74257<=e;2A.7294;.`L=2+5.4,.2=ZH.]00Sa
R4A<94A.2C+=+,F.,6.+A4*,+7F.74257<=.B692=.+*,6*2,+6*;.`L=2+5.4,.2=ZH.]00]a
R4A<94A.2,,5+C<,+6*;.67.E<+=,.,6.6,145;.`L=2+5.4,.2=ZH./IIga
R4A<94A.;4*;+,+B+,F.,6.A+;,54;;.9<4;.`L=2+5H./IIWa
OB+A4*94.67.R4A<94A.O86,+6*2=.!5694;;+*E
X*,29,.345;349,+B4.,2>+*E.`92*.<*A45;,2*A.G12,.2*6,145.345;6*.+;.
,1+*>+*Ee744=+*Ea
§
R4A<94A.4832,1F.`A64;*:,.9254.2C6<,.,14.6,145.345;6*:;.
,16<E1,;e744=+*E;a
§
$6*,52;,+*E.345;349,+B4Y,2>+*E.2*A.4832,1F.82F.C4.,14.42;+4;,.G2F.,6.
+*A+92,4.,14.3;F91632,1;:.96E*+,+B4e486,+6*2=.A+916,68F
!45;349,+B4Y,2>+*E..B45;<;.O832,1F
M12,.=42A;.,6.,14;4.=425*+*E.356C=48;c
\6G.V425.%F36,14;+;
'9,+B2,4;.G14*.74257<=
%+E145.+*.2*D+4,F.32,+4*,;
R4A<94A.7425Y96*A+,+6*+*E
§
R4A<94A.;,25,=4
§
R4A<94A.2B6+A2*94
§
'*+82=;.G+,16<,.28FEA2=24.;16G-
'=;6.233425;.+*B6=B4A.+*.7425.84865F.76582,+6*
'8FEA2=2-.V425.94*,52=
M1454.+;.7425.+*.,14.C52+*c
!6,4*,+2==F.=6G45.B6=<84
!6,4*,+2==F.54A<94A.29,+B+,F.+*.945,2+*.96*,4D,;
!6,4*,+2==F.54A<94A.96**49,+B+,F.,6.6,145.C52+*.54E+6*;
OB+A4*94.+;.8+D4AH.16G4B45.2.E56G+*E.C6AF.67.54;42591.;<EE4;,;.,12,.28FEA2=2.
;,5<9,<54.65.7<*9,+6*.82F.C4.2C*6582=.+*.,14.3;F91632,1
'8FEA2=2.'C*6582=+,+4;.+*.!;F91632,1;
R4A<94A.4832,1F
R4A<94A.E<+=,
R4A<94A.;1284
R4A<94A.2*D+4,F
R4A<94A.*4E2,+B4.486,+6*;H.C562A=F.96*94+B4A
!56C=48;.G+,1.6,145.486,+6*;.12B4.2=;6.C44*.1F36,14;+N4A.,6.C4.2,.,14.566,.67.
,14.3;F91632,1+9.A+;65A45
X,.+;.+8365,2*,.765.7<,<54.54;42591.,6.+A4*,+7F.,14.86;,.54=4B2*,.486,+6*2=.
356C=48;
&,145.O86,+6*2=.%F36,14;4;
"<EE4;,.,12,.+,.+;*:,.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.12;.2.A47+9+,.+*.,14.2C+=+,F.,6.744=.
486,+6*H.C<,.52,145.,12,.,14F.A6*:,.2,,4*A.,6.,14.+*76582,+6*.,12,.G6<=A.
=42A.,6.,14.486,+6*2=.54;36*;4
'54.;<EE4;,+*E.;684,1+*E.2>+*.,6.,14.3;F91632,1.G425+*E.U165;4.
C=+*A45;UH.C<,.C4=+4B4.,12,.+,.+;.;684,1+*E.8654.7<*A284*,2=.2C6<,.,14.
96*;,5<9,+6*.67.,14.3;F91632,1:;.C2;+9.2,,4*,+6*2=.;F;,48
(5F+*E.,6.82>4.2.92547<=.A+;,+*9,+6*.C4,G44*.486,+6*.2*A.2,,4*,+6*
L<,.+,.35636;4;.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.G6<=A.;16G.*6582=.=4B4=;.67.486,+6*.
+7.+,.G2;*:,.765.,14+5.2,,4*,+6*2=.356C=48;
(14.54;36*;4.86A<=2,+6*.1F36,14;+;.;,+==.5496E*+N4;.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.12;.
54A<94A.486,+6*2=.54;36*;4;
R4;36*;4._6A<=2,+6*.%F36,14;+;
(14.l25+6<;._6A4=;
"4B452=.;,<A+4;.*6G.;<EE4;,.,12,.3;F91632,1;.92*.;16G.486,+6*2=.35694;;+*E.
,12,.233425;.*6582=.G14*.2;>4A.,6.,5F
!6=+,+9+2*;H.$O&;H.4,9Z.82F.A6.G4==.,6.12B4.;684.U3;F91632,1+9.b<2=+,+4;U
&,145.1F36,14;4;.+*9=<A4.,14.36;;+C+=+,F.,12,.3;F91632,1F.+;.29,<2==F.2A23,+B4
L<,.+;.+,.542==F.2.UA47+9+,Uc
"684.9=+*+9+2*;e54;4259145;.254.8654.63,+8+;,+9.,12*.6,145;
f<5F.5482+*;.6<,.6*.,1+;.b<4;,+6*
)*=+>4.G+,1.;684.6,145.A+;65A45;H.,14.3;F91632,1.5254=F.,1+*>;.14.12;.2.
356C=48
(6.,14.96*,525FH.14.E4*452==F.354;4*,;.G+,1.2.*259+;;+;,+9.;4*;4.67.;4=7Y
G65,1
M12,.+;.2E544AH.16G4B45H.+;.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.+;.2.,5+9>F.345;6*2=+,F.,6.,542,
"6.,542,84*,.82F.*6,.6*=F.+*B6=B4.,542,+*E.,14.A+;65A45H.C<,.+*.96*B+*9+*E.,14.
+*A+B+A<2=.,12,.,14F.12B4.2.A+;65A45.+*.,14.7+5;,.3=294
'54.3;F91632,1;.,542,2C=4c
_654.6774*94;.76==6G+*E.,542,84*,
§
_654.B+6=4*,.76==6G+*E.,542,84*,
§
_654.=+>4=F.,6.C4.+*9259452,4A.76==6G+*E.,542,84*,
§
X*A44AH.+*.;4B452=.;,<A+4;H.+*A+B+A<2=;.G16.G4*,.,156<E1.,14.7<==.
,542,84*,.356,696=.4*A4A.<3.G65;4.,12*.,16;4.G16.A+A.*6,.5494+B4.,14.
,542,84*,
O25=F.2,,483,;.,6.A4B4=63.,542,84*,.356,696=;.765.3;F91632,1;.G454.1+E1=F.
<*;<994;;7<=
&*4.36;;+C+=+,F.+;.,12,.,542,84*,.,<5*;.3;F91632,1;.+*,6.C4,,45.3;F91632,1;
O25=F.(542,84*,.',,483,;
'*6,145.36;;+C+=+,F.+;.,12,.G4.;+83=F.12B4*:,.F4,.A4B4=634A.2335635+2,4.
,542,84*,.+*,45B4*,+6*;
$2<,+6*.+;.54b<+54A.+*.h<83+*E.,6.,14.96*9=<;+6*.,12,.3;F91632,1;.254.
<*,542,2C=4
X*,4*A4A.,6.C5+*E.1<8+=+,F.2*A.2.;4*;4.67.634**4;;.,6.729+=+,2,4.
3;F91+2,5+9.,542,84*,;
X*.6*4.325,+9<=25=F.6AA.,542,84*,.356,696=H.3;F91632,1+9.2*A.;91+N63154*+9.
32,+4*,;.+*.&2>.R+AE4.G454.;,5+334A.A6G*H.E+B4*.\"P.2*A.=69>4A.+*.2.5668.
,6E4,145
Q2>4A.\"P."4;;+6*;c.
R4A<94A.B+6=4*94
R4A<94A.95+8+*2=+,F
R4A<94A.;4D<2=.A4B+2*94
"<EE4;,;.2.;684G12,.A+77454*,.;,65F.2*A.C4E<*.,6.A486*;,52,4
Q4G45.M65>
"<EE4;,;.,12,.2,.=42;,.;684.3;F91632,1;.82F.C4.,542,2C=4
\6682*.4,.2=ZH.]00gH.2*A.\2*E,6*.4,.2=ZH.]00J-.C6,1.76<*A.,12,.3;F91632,;.96<=A.
C4.;43452,4A.+*,6.,16;4.G16.A+A.2*A.A+A*:,.3457658.G4==.+*.,542,84*,
&=B45.4,.2=ZH.]0/^-./g].V4A452==FY+*9259452,4A.6774*A45;.325,+9+32,4A.+*.,14.
'EE54;;+6*.L412B+6<5.$6*,56=.`'L$a.356E528
$2=AG4==.2*A.B2*.RFC564>.`]0/^a-.g0i.54A<9,+6*.+*.B+6=4*94.+*.F6<,1;H.
54E25A=4;;.67.!$\YR.;9654
Q4G45.(542,84*,.',,483,;
R494*,.,542,84*,.+*,45B4*,+6*;.254.;16G+*E.+*9542;4AH.C<,.125A=F.
6B45G14=8+*EH.;<994;;
X7.,14.A+;65A45.+;.A<4.,6.2.=29>.67.7425H.,14*.G4.82F.*44A.,6.,25E4,.,1+;.=29>.
67.7425T.+7.,14.A+;65A45.+;.A<4.,6.2,,4*,+6*2=.2C*6582=+,+4;H.,14*.G4.82F.
*44A.,6.,25E4,.,16;4.2C*6582=+,+4;
&*4.356C=48.5482+*;.2.A+;96**49,.C4,G44*.4D345+84*,2=.54;42591.6*.,14.
A+;65A45H.2*A.,14.769<;.67.,542,84*,.+*,45B4*,+6*;
(542,84*,eR4;42591.P+;96**49,
&*4.5494*,.,542,84*,.+*,45B4*,+6*.A+A.,25E4,.,14.3;F91632,1;.1F36,14;+N4A.
96E*+,+B4.2C*6582=+,+4;
V6<*A.,12,.2335635+2,4.96E*+,+B4.5484A+2,+6*.,52+*+*E.+8356B4A.,14.96E*+,+B4.
A47+9+,;.;44*.+*.3;F91632,1;
',,4*,+6*._6A+7+92,+6*
MAR.%7
M4A*4;A2FH. _2591.^0H.]0/J g-^J.!_
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
!"#$%&!'(%#
)*+,-./0
$123,45-.//
&*4.67.'845+92:;.86;,.7286<;.;45+2=.>+==45;?
@4+*.>+A*2334A.1+;.B+9,+8;.C<,.2=;6.4D1<84A.9653;4;.7568.,14.=692=.E52B4F25A.
;6.,12,.14.96<=A.>443.,5631+4;.7568.,14.C6*4;.2*A.;>+*.67.,14;4.B+9,+8;
?
@4+*.G2;.7+5;,.,16<E1,.<*7+,.765.,5+2=.C<,.27,45.;684.,+84.+*.2.84*,2=.142=,1.
729+=+,FH.14.G2;.,5+4A.+*./IJK.765.,14.8<5A45.67.L45*+94.M65A4*.+*.G1+91.14.
5494+B4A.=+74.+835+;6*84*,.27,45.C4+*E.A+2E*6;4A.G+,1.;91+N63154*+2
?
OA.@4+*
"684.;91+N63154*+9;.254.3;F91632,1;H.C<,.*6.8654.;6.,12*.,14.E4*452=.
363<=2,+6*
"91+N63154*+9.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1+9?
(1+;.+;.2.,5+9>F.6*4-.3;F91632,1F.92*.699<5.A<4.,6.C52+*.A282E4H.C<,.
3;F91632,1;.A6*:,.,4*A.,6.12B4.E56;;.96E*+,+B4.
L52+*.P282E4.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1+9?
M12,.!;F91632,1F.+;.Q6,
!45123;.R<;;+2:;.86;,.*6,65+6<;.;45+2=.>+==45?
M2;.54;36*;+C=4.765.2,.=42;,.SI.8<5A45;H.36;;+C=F.J0?
M2;.6*.;69+2C=4.91+=A.<*,+=.14.1+,.1+;.142A.G14*.14.74==.677.2.;G+*ET.756*,.,12,.
36+*,.6*H.14.G2;.2EE54;;+B4H.2*,+;69+2=H.2*A.67,4*.,42;4A.765.C4+*E.2.U54,25AU
?
M2;.C2A=F.27749,4A.CF.1+;.E52*A72,145:;.A42,1H.2,.G1+91.36+*,.14.C4E2*.>+==+*E.
84*.+*.,14.325>H.2*A.;,+9>+*E.B6A>2.C6,,=4;.+*.,14+5.;><==;.,6.4*;<54.,14F.G454.
A42A
?
'=;6.82A4.B+A46;.67.1+8;4=7.16=A+*E.91+=A54*.<3;+A4.A6G*.2*A.;,2,+*E-.U#6<.254.
+*.8F.36G45.*6GU
?
'=4D2*A45.!+91<;1>+
(14.3;F91632,1.92*.2,.,+84;.C4.+83<=;+B4H.C<,.14.+;*:,.7<4=4A.CF.
<*96*,56==2C=4.<5E4;
)*96*,56==2C=4.<5E4;.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1?
'E2+*-.+7.14.,1+*>;.14:;.U;<336;4A.,6U.<*A45,2>4.1+;.29,+6*;H.,14*.14:;.*6,.
2.3;F91632,1
V6==6G+*E."2,2*+9.5+,<2=;.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1?
M12,.!;F91632,1F.+;.Q6,
'*.'845+92*.;45+2=.>+==45.96*B+9,4A.67.2.;45+4;.67.;166,+*E.2,,29>;.,12,.C4E2*.+*.
,14.;<8845.67./IWJ
?
%4.96*74;;4A.,6.2==.67.,148.2*A.9=2+84A.2.A486*.,12,.36;;4;;4A.1+;.
*4+E1C6<5:;.A6E.12A.96882*A4A.1+8.,6.>+==
?
X*./IKWH.14.C49284.2.C65*Y2E2+*.$15+;,+2*H.2*A.2;>4A.,12,.7568.,12,.36+*,.
765G25A.14.C4.5474554A.,6.2;.,14.U"6*.67.%634U
?
X*.,14.8+A.I0;.14.284*A4A.1+;.96*74;;+6*.,6.9=2+8.,12,.14.12A.C44*.2.848C45.
67.2.B+6=4*,."2,2*+9.9<=,.,12,.65914;,52,4A.,14.+*9+A4*,;.2;.5+,<2=.8<5A45
?
$<554*,=F.;45B+*E.J.=+74.;4*,4*94;?
P2B+A.L45>6G+,N
X7.,14F.,5<=F.16=A.,12,.+A46=6EFH.,14F.356C2C=F.A6*:,.,1+*>.,12,.G12,.
,14F:54.A6+*E.+;.G56*EZ.(14.3;F91632,1.<*A45;,2*A;.5+E1,.7568.G56*E
V6==6G+*E.54=+E+6<;.+A46=6EF.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1?
&*=F.2.;4=49,.;<C;4,.67.,14.95+8+*2=.363<=2,+6*.844,;.95+,45+2.765.
3;F91632,1F
$5+8+*2=.A64;.*6,.842*.3;F91632,1?
M12,.!;F91632,1F.+;.Q6,
[+==45.JI.3463=4.+*.2.82;;.;166,+*E.2,.2.M65>45;.#6<,1.\42E<4.9283?
%4=A.2.725Y5+E1,.8+=+,2*,.+A46=6EF?
&*.,14.A2F.67.,14.2,,29>;H.L54+B+>.4=49,56*+92==F. A+;,5+C<,4A.2.96834*A+<8.67.
,4D,;.4*,+,=4A.]0K^-.'.O<56342*.P49=252,+6*.67.X*A434*A4*94H.G1+91.92==.X;=28.
2*A.$<=,<52=._25D+;8.U,14.4*48FUH.2*A.25E<4.765.,14.B+6=4*,.2**+1+=2,+6*.67.
8<=,+9<=,<52=+;8
?
'*A45;.L415+*E.L54+B+>
(1<;H.+,.+;.*6,.842;<54A.C2;4A.`4*,+54=Fa.6*.6*4:;.C412B+6<5
!;F91632,1.+;.2.345;6*2=+,F.A+;65A45
-
R4A<94A.4D345+4*94. 67.945,2+*.486,+6*;-.7425H.E<+=,H.4832,1F
X*9542;4A.65+4*,2,+6*.,6G25A;.54G25A-.+83<=;+B4H.;4*;2,+6*Y;44>+*E
$1258+*E.C<,.82*+3<=2,+B4-.32,16=6E+92=.=F+*E
!45123;.2*,+;69+2=.`36,4*,+2==F.2.96*;4b<4*94.52,145.,12*.2.92<;4a
$12529,45+;,+9;.67.,14.3;F91632,1.+*9=<A4-
-
M12,.+;.2.!;F91632,1c
'.;48+Y;,5<9,<54A.+*,45B+4G.+;.<;4A.,6.A+2E*6;4.3;F91632,1F
d<4;,+6*;.+*b<+54.+*,6.728+=FH.;9166=H.75+4*A;H.G65>H.345;6*2=.2*A.95+8+*2=.=+74H.
,6.E2+*.2.7<==.233549+2,+6*.765.,14.345;6*.2*A.,14+5.345;6*2=+,Fe=+74;,F=4
O291.!$\YR.+,48.+;.;9654A.2.0H./.65.]T.,1<;.2.,6,2=.;9654.67.S0.+;.36;;+C=4
@=+C.2*A.;<3457+9+2=.91258
@52*A+6;4.;4=7YG65,1
!2,16=6E+92=.=F+*E
$6**+*E.2*A.82*+3<=2,+B4
\29>.67.54865;4.65.E<+=,
"12==6G.27749,
$2==6<;*4;;.65.=29>.67.4832,1F
V2+=<54.,6.29943,.54;36*;+C+=+,F
_2*F.;165,Y,458.825+,2=.54=2,+6*;1+3;
!568+;9<+,F
!252;+,+9.=+74;,F=4
!665.C412B+6<52=.96*,56=;
O25=F.C412B+6<52=.356C=48;
\29>.67.542=+;,+9. =6*EY,458.E62=;
Q44A.765.;,+8<=2,+6*
X83<=;+B+,F
X554;36*;+C+=+,F
f<B4*+=4.A4=+*b<4*9F
R4B692,+6*.67.96*A+,+6*2=.54=42;4
$5+8+*2=.B45;2,+=+,F
(6.C4.A+2E*6;4A.2;.3;F91632,1+9H.F6<.8<;,.;9654.^0.65.1+E145
!;F91632,1F.$149>=+;,.R4B+;4A.`!$\YRa
@=+C.2*A.;<3457+9+2=.91258
@52*A+6;4.;4=7YG65,1
!2,16=6E+92=.=F+*E
$6**+*E.2*A.82*+3<=2,+B4
\29>.67.54865;4.65.E<+=,
"12==6G.27749,
$2==6<;*4;;.65.=29>.67.4832,1F
V2+=<54.,6.29943,.54;36*;+C+=+,F
_2*F.;165,Y,458.825+,2=.54=2,+6*;1+3;.3568+;9<+,F
V29,65./
-
Q44A.765.;,+8<=2,+6*
!252;+,+9.=+74;,F=4
\6G.C412B+6<52=.96*,56=;
O25=F.C412B+6<52=.356C=48;
\29>.67.542=+;,+9. =6*EY,458.E62=;
X83<=;+B+,F
X554;36*;+C+=+,F
f<B4*+=4.A4=+*b<4*9F
R4B692,+6*.67.96*A+,+6*2=.54=42;4
$5+8+*2=.B45;2,+=+,F
V29,65.]
-
(G6.P+77454*,.V29,65;
V2+=<54.,6.96*7658.,6.;69+2=.*658;.G+,1.54;349,.,6.=2G7<=.C412B+6<5;.2;.
+*A+92,4A.CF.54342,4A=F.3457658+*E.29,;.,12,.254.E56<*A;.765.2554;,T
P494+,7<=*4;;H.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.54342,4A.=F+*EH.<;4.67.2=+2;4;H.65.96**+*E.
6,145;.765.345;6*2=.3567+,.65.3=42;<54T
X83<=;+B+,F.65.72+=<54.,6.3=2*.2142AT
X55+,2C+=+,F.2*A.2EE54;;+B4*4;;H.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.54342,4A.31F;+92=.7+E1,;.65.
2;;2<=,;T
R49>=4;;.A+;54E25A.765.;274,F.67.;4=7.65.6,145;T
$6*;+;,4*,.+554;36*;+C+=+,FH.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.54342,4A.72+=<54.,6.;<;,2+*.
96*;+;,4*,.G65>.C412B+6<5.65.16*65.7+*2*9+2=.6C=+E2,+6*;T
\29>.67.54865;4H.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.C4+*E.A+77454*,.,6.65.52,+6*2=+N+*E.12B+*E.
1<5,H.8+;,542,4AH.65.;,6=4*.7568.2*6,145T
(14.+*A+B+A<2=.+;.2,.=42;,./K.F425;H.,1454.+;.4B+A4*94.67.$6*A<9,.P+;65A45.
G+,1.6*;4,.C47654.2E4./g.F425;H.2*A.,14.699<554*94.67.2*,+;69+2=.
C412B+6<5.+;.*6,.4D9=<;+B4=F.A<5+*E.,14.96<5;4.67."91+N63154*+2.65.2._2*+9.
O3+;6A4
'.345B2;+B4.32,,45*.67.A+;54E25A.765.2*A.B+6=2,+6*.67.,14.5+E1,;.67.6,145;.
699<55+*E.;+*94.2E4./g.F425;H.2;.+*A+92,4A.CF.,1544.`65.8654a.67.,14.76==6G+*E-
'*,+;69+2=.!45;6*2=+,F.P+;65A45.`'"!Pa
!;F91632,1F.B45;<;.'"!P
!$\YR.B45;<;.'"!P
'"!P.<;4;.2.behavioural+approachH.48312;+N+*E.,14.2*,+;69+2=.C412B+6<5;H.
;69+2=.82=2Ah<;,84*,.2*A.9156*+9.+554;36*;+C+=+,F
!$\YR.`729,65./H.+*.325,+9<=25a-.<,+=+N4;.2.process+approachH.48312;+N+*E.,14.
;349+7+9.345;6*2=+,F.35694;;4;.,12,.254.2;;<84A.,6.<*A45=+4.,14.A+;65A45
(14.35694;;.23356291.12;.C44*.299<;4A.67.C4+*E.,66.B2E<4H.G+,16<,.2.
125A.A+2E*6;,+9.A47+*+,+6*
(14.C412B+6<52=.23356291.12;.C44*.299<;4A.67.,52*;=2,+*E.2*,+;69+2=.
C412B+6<5;.+*,6.2.542=.3;F916=6E+92=.A+;65A45
(6.;684.4D,4*,H.G4.82F.;2F.,12,.'!P.92*.C4,,45.+A4*,+7F.UM16UH.G14542;.
,14.!$\YR.92*.C4,,45.+A4*,+7F.UG1FU
X83=+92,+6*;c
!;F91632,1F.+;.1+E1=F.96554=2,4A.G+,1.95+8+*2=.C412B+6<5
",25,.6774*A+*E.2,.2.F6<*E45.2E4
!45;+;,.=6*E45
O*E2E4.+*.8654.B+6=4*,.6774*94;
O*E2E4.+*.2.E542,45.*<8C45.67.6774*94.,F34;.`95+8+*2=.B45;2,+=+,Fa
!;F91632,1;-
$6*;,+,<,4.C4,G44*./0Y]0i.67.,14.35+;6*.363<=2,+6*
(1+;.+;.C492<;4.,14.3;F91632,1.+;.;+E*+7+92*,=F.8654.=+>4=F.,6.C4.2.
54342,.6774*A45
§
'54.54;36*;+C=4.765.2;.8<91.2;.J0i.67.;69+4,2=.95+84
LF.;684.4;,+82,4;H.3;F91632,1;-
!;F91632,1F.2*A.&774*A+*E
!;F91632,1;.A6.9688+,.8654.B+6=4*,.95+84;H.C<,.,1+;.82F.C4.54=2,4A.,6.,14+5.
1+E145.52,4.67.95+84.+*.E4*452=
'.842*;.,6.2*.4*AH.52,145.,12*.,14.4*A.+,;4=7
M14*.B+6=4*94.699<5;H.+,.,4*A;.,6.C4.86,+B2,4A.CF.542A+=F.+A4*,+7+2C=4.E62=;
!463=4.8<5A45.765.82*F.j486,+6*2=k.542;6*;
_<5A45.+;.29,<2==F.72+5=F.<*54=2,4A.,6.3;F91632,1F
!;F91632,1F.2*A.l+6=4*,.&774*A+*E
L56G*.m.V65,1.`/IIWa-.*6.2;;69+2,+6*
!65,45.4,.2=.`]000a-.74G45.;4D<2=.6774*94;.+*.3;F91632,1+9.;283=4
!;F91632,1F.+;.29,<2==F.*6,.;,56*E=F.2;;69+2,4A.G+,1.;4D<2=.6774*94;
(14.542;6*.765.,1+;.82F.C4.+*1454*,.+*.,14.A+;65A45.+,;4=7-.,14.3;F91632,1.+;*:,.
E4*452==F.,2>4*.CF.<*96*,56==2C=4.<5E4;H.2;.82F.C4.,14.;4D<2=.6774*A45
!;F91632,1F.2*A."4D<2=.&774*A+*E
V+,;.,14+5.96**+*Ee82*+3<=2,+B4.*2,<54
'E2+*H.,14F:==.9688+,.B+6=4*94.+7.54b<+54AnC<,.E4*452==F.6*=F.+7.54b<+54A
V52<A.+;.,14.95+84.86;,.9=6;4=F.=+*>4A.,6.3;F91632,1F
!;F91632,1F.2*A.V52<A
(14.1+E145.52,4.67.549+A+B+;8.82F.C4.54=2,4A.,6.,14.54=2,+B4.+*47749,+B4*4;;.67.
+*,45B4*,+6*;.765.3;F91632,1F
M14*.3;F91632,1;.9683=4,4.,542,84*,H.+,.82F.82>4.,148.G65;4
!;F91632,1F.2*A.(542,84*,.O7749,+B4*4;;
X*A44AH.;684.3463=4.G+,1.3;F91632,1+9.912529,45+;,+9;.254.356A<9,+B4.
848C45;.67.;69+4,F
$12529,45+;,+9;.67.3;F91632,1F.82F.C4.<;47<=.765.,14;4.35674;;+6*;
§
X*.2.5494*,.;,<AF.67.]0^.9653652,4.35674;;+6*2=;H.K.+*A+B+A<2=;.`gia.;9654A.
6B45.^0.6*.,14.!$\YR
",<A4*,;.254.;684,+84;.;<535+;4A.,6.1425.,12,.*6,.2==.3;F91632,1;.9688+,.
95+84;
M12,:;.,14.A+77454*94.C4,G44*.3;F91632,1;.,12,.A6.2*A.A6*:,.C49684.95+8+*2=;
!;F91632,1F.+*.,14.$688<*+,F
X*.96*,52;,.,6.E4*452=.6774*A45.363<=2,+6*;H.,14.3;F91632,1.233425;.,6.12B4.
=25E4=F.+*,29,.Xd
!45943,<2=.35694;;+*E
$6E*+,+B4.A4B4=6384*,
U4D49<,+B4.96*,56=U
\425*+*E.2C+=+,F
"+8+=25=FH.54;42591.;<EE4;,;.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.12;.=25E4=F.+*,29,-
R4848C45-.2.35+825F.54b<+5484*,.67.3;F91632,1F.+;.2*.2C+=+,F.,6.7<==F.
96835414*A.5+E1,.7568.G56*E
X*,4==+E4*94
!25,+9+32*,;.12A.,6.356944A.,156<E1.2.82N4.,12,.96*;,2*,=F.677454A.,148.
76<5.A+549,+6*2=.916+94;
/.A+549,+6*.G2;.965549,T.^.G454.G56*E
&7.,14.^.G56*E.6*4;H./.G2;.3<*+;14A.G+,1.;169>
!;F91632,1;.82A4.,14.;284.*<8C45.67.965549,.916+94;.2;.*6*Y
3;F91632,1;H.2*A.E6,.,156<E1.,14.82N4.2;.b<+9>=F
L<,.*6*Y3;F91632,1;.2=;6.A+77454*,+2,4A.C4,G44*.,14.;169>.2*A.*6*Y
;169>.32,1;T.3;F91632,1;.A+A.*6,
\F>>4*.`/IgWa-.V+5;,.A486*;,52,4A.,12,.3;F91632,1;.12B4.2.A47+9+,.+*.,14.2C+=+,F.
,6.2B6+A.3<*+;184*,H.G+,1.<;4.67.=2CF5+*,1Y=+>4.82N4.,2;>
"169>
§
_6*4,25F.3<*+;184*,
§
"69+2=.!<*+;184*,
§
"9182<>.`/IW0a.54b<+54A.325,+9+32*,;.,6.3457658.,14.\F>>4*._4*,2=._2N4.
<*A45.6*4.67.,1544.96*A+,+6*;-
!;F91632,1;.;16G45.3665.32;;+B4.2B6+A2*94.=425*+*E.<*A45.,14.;169>.2*A.
;69+2=.3<*+;184*,.96*A+,+6*;H.C<,.A+A.*6,.A+7745.7568.*6*Y3;F91632,1;.+*.
,14.86*4,25F.3<*+;184*,.96*A+,+6*
!45123;.,14.3;F91632,1;.;+83=F.254*:,.86,+B2,4A.4*6<E1.,6.9254c
P+77+9<=,F.'B6+A+*E.!<*+;184*,
!25,+9+32*,;.254.;16G*.2.9=69>H.2*A.254.,6=A.,12,.G14*.,14.9=69>.1+,;.N456H.
,14F.254.E6+*E.,6.5494+B4. 2.32+*7<=.;169>
!;F91632,1;.;16G.;82==45.+*9542;4;
§
_6;,.3463=4.;16G.+*9542;4;.+*.;>+*.96*A<9,2*94.`;G42,+*Ea.2;.,14.9=69>.
*425;.N456
%254:;.$6<*,A6G*.!252A+E8
\6G.'*,+9+32,65F.R4;36*;4;
\6G.32+*.;4*;+,+B+,F
\6G.96*945*.765.,14.32+*.67.6,145;
\6G.;,25,=4.547=4D
&,145.R4A<94A.R4;36*;4;
(14.35+825F.912529,45+;,+9. 67.,14.3;F91632,1.233425;.,6.C4.2.96*;+;,4*,.
54A<9,+6*.+*.,14+5.4D345+4*9+*E. 67.486,+6*2=.+*76582,+6*
_6;,.6CB+6<;.G+,1.54E25A.,6.*4E2,+B4.486,+6*;
§
V425.2*A.;2A*4;;.+*.325,+9<=25
§
(1+;.A47+9+,.82F.*6,.54=2,4.,6.2==.486,+6*;.4b<2==F
R4A<94A.O86,+6*2=.!5694;;+*E
R4A<94A.2C+=+,F.,6.+A4*,+7F.74257<=e;2A.7294;.`L=2+5.4,.2=ZH.]00Sa
R4A<94A.2C+=+,F.,6.+A4*,+7F.74257<=.B692=.+*,6*2,+6*;.`L=2+5.4,.2=ZH.]00]a
R4A<94A.2,,5+C<,+6*;.67.E<+=,.,6.6,145;.`L=2+5.4,.2=ZH./IIga
R4A<94A.;4*;+,+B+,F.,6.A+;,54;;.9<4;.`L=2+5H./IIWa
OB+A4*94.67.R4A<94A.O86,+6*2=.!5694;;+*E
X*,29,.345;349,+B4.,2>+*E.`92*.<*A45;,2*A.G12,.2*6,145.345;6*.+;.
,1+*>+*Ee744=+*Ea
§
R4A<94A.4832,1F.`A64;*:,.9254.2C6<,.,14.6,145.345;6*:;.
,16<E1,;e744=+*E;a
§
$6*,52;,+*E.345;349,+B4Y,2>+*E.2*A.4832,1F.82F.C4.,14.42;+4;,.G2F.,6.
+*A+92,4.,14.3;F91632,1;:.96E*+,+B4e486,+6*2=.A+916,68F
!45;349,+B4Y,2>+*E..B45;<;.O832,1F
M12,.=42A;.,6.,14;4.=425*+*E.356C=48;c
\6G.V425.%F36,14;+;
'9,+B2,4;.G14*.74257<=
%+E145.+*.2*D+4,F.32,+4*,;
R4A<94A.7425Y96*A+,+6*+*E
§
R4A<94A.;,25,=4
§
R4A<94A.2B6+A2*94
§
'*+82=;.G+,16<,.28FEA2=24.;16G-
'=;6.233425;.+*B6=B4A.+*.7425.84865F.76582,+6*
'8FEA2=2-.V425.94*,52=
M1454.+;.7425.+*.,14.C52+*c
!6,4*,+2==F.=6G45.B6=<84
!6,4*,+2==F.54A<94A.29,+B+,F.+*.945,2+*.96*,4D,;
!6,4*,+2==F.54A<94A.96**49,+B+,F.,6.6,145.C52+*.54E+6*;
OB+A4*94.+;.8+D4AH.16G4B45.2.E56G+*E.C6AF.67.54;42591.;<EE4;,;.,12,.28FEA2=2.
;,5<9,<54.65.7<*9,+6*.82F.C4.2C*6582=.+*.,14.3;F91632,1
'8FEA2=2.'C*6582=+,+4;.+*.!;F91632,1;
R4A<94A.4832,1F
R4A<94A.E<+=,
R4A<94A.;1284
R4A<94A.2*D+4,F
R4A<94A.*4E2,+B4.486,+6*;H.C562A=F.96*94+B4A
!56C=48;.G+,1.6,145.486,+6*;.12B4.2=;6.C44*.1F36,14;+N4A.,6.C4.2,.,14.566,.67.
,14.3;F91632,1+9.A+;65A45
X,.+;.+8365,2*,.765.7<,<54.54;42591.,6.+A4*,+7F.,14.86;,.54=4B2*,.486,+6*2=.
356C=48;
&,145.O86,+6*2=.%F36,14;4;
"<EE4;,.,12,.+,.+;*:,.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.12;.2.A47+9+,.+*.,14.2C+=+,F.,6.744=.
486,+6*H.C<,.52,145.,12,.,14F.A6*:,.2,,4*A.,6.,14.+*76582,+6*.,12,.G6<=A.
=42A.,6.,14.486,+6*2=.54;36*;4
'54.;<EE4;,+*E.;684,1+*E.2>+*.,6.,14.3;F91632,1.G425+*E.U165;4.
C=+*A45;UH.C<,.C4=+4B4.,12,.+,.+;.;684,1+*E.8654.7<*A284*,2=.2C6<,.,14.
96*;,5<9,+6*.67.,14.3;F91632,1:;.C2;+9.2,,4*,+6*2=.;F;,48
(5F+*E.,6.82>4.2.92547<=.A+;,+*9,+6*.C4,G44*.486,+6*.2*A.2,,4*,+6*
L<,.+,.35636;4;.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.G6<=A.;16G.*6582=.=4B4=;.67.486,+6*.
+7.+,.G2;*:,.765.,14+5.2,,4*,+6*2=.356C=48;
(14.54;36*;4.86A<=2,+6*.1F36,14;+;.;,+==.5496E*+N4;.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.12;.
54A<94A.486,+6*2=.54;36*;4;
R4;36*;4._6A<=2,+6*.%F36,14;+;
(14.l25+6<;._6A4=;
"4B452=.;,<A+4;.*6G.;<EE4;,.,12,.3;F91632,1;.92*.;16G.486,+6*2=.35694;;+*E.
,12,.233425;.*6582=.G14*.2;>4A.,6.,5F
!6=+,+9+2*;H.$O&;H.4,9Z.82F.A6.G4==.,6.12B4.;684.U3;F91632,1+9.b<2=+,+4;U
&,145.1F36,14;4;.+*9=<A4.,14.36;;+C+=+,F.,12,.3;F91632,1F.+;.29,<2==F.2A23,+B4
L<,.+;.+,.542==F.2.UA47+9+,Uc
"684.9=+*+9+2*;e54;4259145;.254.8654.63,+8+;,+9.,12*.6,145;
f<5F.5482+*;.6<,.6*.,1+;.b<4;,+6*
)*=+>4.G+,1.;684.6,145.A+;65A45;H.,14.3;F91632,1.5254=F.,1+*>;.14.12;.2.
356C=48
(6.,14.96*,525FH.14.E4*452==F.354;4*,;.G+,1.2.*259+;;+;,+9.;4*;4.67.;4=7Y
G65,1
M12,.+;.2E544AH.16G4B45H.+;.,12,.,14.3;F91632,1.+;.2.,5+9>F.345;6*2=+,F.,6.,542,
"6.,542,84*,.82F.*6,.6*=F.+*B6=B4.,542,+*E.,14.A+;65A45H.C<,.+*.96*B+*9+*E.,14.
+*A+B+A<2=.,12,.,14F.12B4.2.A+;65A45.+*.,14.7+5;,.3=294
'54.3;F91632,1;.,542,2C=4c
_654.6774*94;.76==6G+*E.,542,84*,
§
_654.B+6=4*,.76==6G+*E.,542,84*,
§
_654.=+>4=F.,6.C4.+*9259452,4A.76==6G+*E.,542,84*,
§
X*A44AH.+*.;4B452=.;,<A+4;H.+*A+B+A<2=;.G16.G4*,.,156<E1.,14.7<==.
,542,84*,.356,696=.4*A4A.<3.G65;4.,12*.,16;4.G16.A+A.*6,.5494+B4.,14.
,542,84*,
O25=F.2,,483,;.,6.A4B4=63.,542,84*,.356,696=;.765.3;F91632,1;.G454.1+E1=F.
<*;<994;;7<=
&*4.36;;+C+=+,F.+;.,12,.,542,84*,.,<5*;.3;F91632,1;.+*,6.C4,,45.3;F91632,1;
O25=F.(542,84*,.',,483,;
'*6,145.36;;+C+=+,F.+;.,12,.G4.;+83=F.12B4*:,.F4,.A4B4=634A.2335635+2,4.
,542,84*,.+*,45B4*,+6*;
$2<,+6*.+;.54b<+54A.+*.h<83+*E.,6.,14.96*9=<;+6*.,12,.3;F91632,1;.254.
<*,542,2C=4
X*,4*A4A.,6.C5+*E.1<8+=+,F.2*A.2.;4*;4.67.634**4;;.,6.729+=+,2,4.
3;F91+2,5+9.,542,84*,;
X*.6*4.325,+9<=25=F.6AA.,542,84*,.356,696=H.3;F91632,1+9.2*A.;91+N63154*+9.
32,+4*,;.+*.&2>.R+AE4.G454.;,5+334A.A6G*H.E+B4*.\"P.2*A.=69>4A.+*.2.5668.
,6E4,145
Q2>4A.\"P."4;;+6*;c.
R4A<94A.B+6=4*94
R4A<94A.95+8+*2=+,F
R4A<94A.;4D<2=.A4B+2*94
"<EE4;,;.2.;684G12,.A+77454*,.;,65F.2*A.C4E<*.,6.A486*;,52,4
Q4G45.M65>
"<EE4;,;.,12,.2,.=42;,.;684.3;F91632,1;.82F.C4.,542,2C=4
\6682*.4,.2=ZH.]00gH.2*A.\2*E,6*.4,.2=ZH.]00J-.C6,1.76<*A.,12,.3;F91632,;.96<=A.
C4.;43452,4A.+*,6.,16;4.G16.A+A.2*A.A+A*:,.3457658.G4==.+*.,542,84*,
&=B45.4,.2=ZH.]0/^-./g].V4A452==FY+*9259452,4A.6774*A45;.325,+9+32,4A.+*.,14.
'EE54;;+6*.L412B+6<5.$6*,56=.`'L$a.356E528
$2=AG4==.2*A.B2*.RFC564>.`]0/^a-.g0i.54A<9,+6*.+*.B+6=4*94.+*.F6<,1;H.
54E25A=4;;.67.!$\YR.;9654
Q4G45.(542,84*,.',,483,;
R494*,.,542,84*,.+*,45B4*,+6*;.254.;16G+*E.+*9542;4AH.C<,.125A=F.
6B45G14=8+*EH.;<994;;
X7.,14.A+;65A45.+;.A<4.,6.2.=29>.67.7425H.,14*.G4.82F.*44A.,6.,25E4,.,1+;.=29>.
67.7425T.+7.,14.A+;65A45.+;.A<4.,6.2,,4*,+6*2=.2C*6582=+,+4;H.,14*.G4.82F.
*44A.,6.,25E4,.,16;4.2C*6582=+,+4;
&*4.356C=48.5482+*;.2.A+;96**49,.C4,G44*.4D345+84*,2=.54;42591.6*.,14.
A+;65A45H.2*A.,14.769<;.67.,542,84*,.+*,45B4*,+6*;
(542,84*,eR4;42591.P+;96**49,
&*4.5494*,.,542,84*,.+*,45B4*,+6*.A+A.,25E4,.,14.3;F91632,1;.1F36,14;+N4A.
96E*+,+B4.2C*6582=+,+4;
V6<*A.,12,.2335635+2,4.96E*+,+B4.5484A+2,+6*.,52+*+*E.+8356B4A.,14.96E*+,+B4.
A47+9+,;.;44*.+*.3;F91632,1;
',,4*,+6*._6A+7+92,+6*
MAR.%7
M4A*4;A2FH. _2591.^0H.]0/J g-^J.!_
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 12 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Notes+

Unlimited access to class notes and textbook notes.

YearlyBest Value
75% OFF
$8 USD/m
Monthly
$30 USD/m
You will be charged $96 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.